[10][11], According to the Triangle of U theory, B. oleracea is very closely related to five other species of the genus Brassica.[12]. Around the fifth century BC, the formation of what is now known as kale had developed. [50], Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle. Napa cabbage doesn't look like head cabbages; it has long, light green leaves that flower off of thick, white stalks. [22], Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". Plants have root systems that are fibrous and shallow. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is an edible plant.It is a lot like broccoli, cauliflower or Brussels sprouts.Cabbage is eaten in many ways around the world. [64], Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves. The scientific name of Cabbage is the botanical name or formal name. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being rarer. [74] In Poland, cabbage is one of the main food crops, and it features prominently in Polish cuisine. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae) thrive in the higher summer temperatures of continental Europe, where they cause considerable damage to cabbage crops. Genetic analysis of nine wild populations on the French Atlantic coast indicated their common feral origin, deriving from plants escaped from fields and gardens.[3]. [58] Cabbages are mature when they are firm and solid to the touch. Downy mildew, a parasitic disease caused by the oomycete Peronospora parasitica,[65] produces pale leaves with white, brownish or olive mildew on the lower leaf surfaces; this is often confused with the fungal disease powdery mildew. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. [40], The characteristic flavor of cabbage is caused by glucosinolates, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Cabbage Risk Assessment Introduction and Summary", "Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cabbage&oldid=996239071, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A hardy plant in its uncultivated form, its high tolerance for salt and lime, and its intolerance of competition from other plants, typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel,[2] and the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. Ornamental plants were developed for ornamental use without regard to taste. [66], Planting near other members of the cabbage family, or where these plants have been placed in previous years, can prompt the spread of pests and disease. The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. [16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage. By selecting for fatter stems, the variant plant known as, European preference emerged for eating immature buds, selection for, Further selection in Belgium in lateral bud led to, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 21:30. This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Thus, bitter taste perception may affect dietary behaviors by influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal regulation. Common Name. It was first observed in North America in 1854, in Illinois, but had spread to Florida and the Rocky Mountains by 1883, and was reported from British Columbia by 1905. Its scientific name is Brassica oleracea, and within this group there are two main varieties: early and late. [24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves. A brief historical sketch is in Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat. Scientific Name. The large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) is prevalent in eastern European countries. [65], One of the most common bacterial diseases to affect cabbage is black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris, which causes chlorotic and necrotic lesions that start at the leaf margins, and wilting of plants. [64] The fungi Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants. Preference led to further artificial selection of kale plants with more tightly bunched leaves, or terminal bud. Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years. [40] The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. [29], While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory,[30] it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage,[31] which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage". [85] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine. In commercial-scale operations, hand-harvested cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and packed directly in the field to increase efficiency. Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan. [28] The headed cabbage variety was known to the Greeks as krambe and to the Romans as brassica or olus;[33] the open, leafy variety (kale) was known in Greek as raphanos and in Latin as caulis. For other uses, see, Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, A whole white cabbage and a cross section. In North America, diamondback moth is now recorded everywhere that cabbage is grown. Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).[4][5]. By contrast, ornamental cabbages and kales are grown primarily as foliage plants for their intensely colored leaves rather than as vegetables. [9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. [88], Cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes[89] and Clostridium botulinum. – mustard P [64], Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds. [13] These "tree cabbages" yield fresh leaves throughout the year, are perennial, and do not need to be destroyed at harvest as with a normal cabbage. [6] The historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing" in reference to the four-petaled flowers, may be the only unifying feature beyond taste. Somewhere around the first century AD emerged the phenotype variation of, Phenotype selection preferences in Germany resulted in a new variation from the kale cultivar. [27], Cabbage was probably domesticated later in history than Near Eastern crops such as lentils and summer wheat. rapa (turnip); turnip, in hand, at a farmers market. The main axis, short and thick. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Leaves are densely packed, and as it grows, close and develop into a gigantic bud of head. Leave a reply. acephala)[3] is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, Brassicaceae. [53] There are several physiological disorders that can affect the postharvest appearance of cabbage. Wild B. oleracea is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year. [82], In addition to its usual purpose as an edible vegetable, cabbage has been used historically in herbalism. Napa cabbage is another Chinese vegetable variety in the Brassica family. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. They are harvested by cutting the stalk just below the bottom leaves with a blade. [15], Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability. [32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. Napa cabbage, also called celery cabbage (B. rapa, variety pekinensis), forms a tight head of crinkled light green leaves. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. [71], Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). [9] The initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm (10–14 in) by 20–30 cm (8–12 in);[13] after this, leaves with shorter petioles develop and heads form through the leaves cupping inward. [57] Some varieties of cabbage have been developed for ornamental use; these are generally called "flowering cabbage". Vegetables in the brassica family, such as collard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, contain glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, which resemble PROP, and therefore much of the perceived "bitterness" of these vegetables is mediated through TAS2R38. Cabbage family, Brassicaceae or Cruciferae, also known as the crucifers, or the mustard family is a family of flowering plants (Angiospermae). [59] Delays in harvest can result in the head splitting as a result of expansion of the inner leaves and continued stem growth. [14][15], With the advent of agriculture and the domestication of wild crop plants, the people of the northern Mediterranean began cultivating wild cabbage. The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage. [47], In Istanbul, Sultan Selim III penned a tongue-in-cheek ode to cabbage: without cabbage, the halva feast was not complete. Cabbage has anti-inflammatory properties. This taste aversion may apply to vegetables in general. The most Cabbage families were found in the USA in 1920. It is recorded from Australia, New Zealand, and the highlands of Papua New Guinea. [24] Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. December 3, 2020. cabbage palm scientific name Repolyo (Cabbage) – Scientific name: Brassica oleracea Linn. Post Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese soldiers took back home the Chinese cabbage and gradually it became popular all over the world. [81] Cabbage is a source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical under basic research for its possible properties. sabauda[2] or var. glabra Regel. Cabbage in Spanish can be different from Cabbage in English. [60], When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. Bok-choy characteristically has a dynamic growth pattern. Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is of different species of the same Brassica genus of plants. [92], This article is about the vegetable. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. tuba, var. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 10:48. However, it is highly dispersiv… Those used for processing, especially sauerkraut, are larger and have a lower percentage of water. Family: Brassicaceae. The family contains well-known species, such as Brassica oleracea , Brassica rapa , Brassica napus , Raphanus sativus , Armoracia rusticana , Arabidopsis thaliana , and many others. Members of the cabbage (brassica) family, e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, radish. [87] As of 2019[update], there is no clinical evidence that cabbage has any medicinal properties. However, the pekinensis subspecies generally refers to Chinese cabbage with elongated apple, Chihli type or Napa type, which can be found in our grocery stores. Introduction. [13], The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall,[13] with flowers that are yellow or white. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. [13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. CABBAGE SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Family : Brassicaceae/ Cruciferae Scientific … It has a lovely mild flavor with a peppery kick that is delicious in salads or stir-frys. Rupr.’ was suitable as the scientific name for Chinese cabbage, and we classified B. rapa var. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. [26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. ... Members of the brassica family, i.e., cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and radish, but also amaranth and eggplant. Brassica rapa recently replaced B. campestris as the scientific name, as this species is not botanically different from the turnip. Origin. Chinese cabbage, either of two widely cultivated members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that are varieties of Brassica rapa. A biennial herb. [32] The ancient Greeks had some varieties of cabbage, as mentioned by Theophrastus, although whether they were more closely related to today's cabbage or to one of the other Brassica crops is unknown. Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm); Agrotis segetum (turnip moth); Albugo candida (white rust of crucifers); Alternaria japonica (pod spot of radish); Athalia rosae (cabbage leaf sawfly); Autographa gamma (silver-Y moth); Beet western yellows virus (turnip (mild) yellows); Brevicoryne brassicae (cabbage aphid); Broad bean wilt virus (lamium mild mosaic); Contarinia nasturtii (swede midge); … Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient. [38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed. [12], Cabbage seedlings have a thin taproot and cordate (heart-shaped) cotyledons. Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith R, Subbarao KV, Westerdahl BB.