exposure to carbon tetrachloride produces liver and kidney damage in humans. (1) Covalent binding of 14C-labeled metabolites was detected in hepatocytes immediately after exposure to CCl4. CDC did not accept commercial support for this continuing education activity. Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl. Carbon tetrachloride is a highly potent hepatotoxin which can cause serious damage to the liver. To prepare the final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed extensive scientific literature, conducted modeling and other risk assessment activities, and collected toxicity, exposure, and hazard information from many sources. For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Environmental Health and Medicine Education, Clinical Assessment - History and Physical Exam. The products are not a substitute for a health care provider's professional judgment. EPA is committed to being open and transparent as the agency follows the process required by the law for evaluating unreasonable risks from chemicals. See EPA’s, View the final risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride and supporting documents, Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Supplemental File Occupational Exposure Risk Calculator (XLSX), Final risk evaluation and supporting documents. Because CCl4is chemically stable, it has a long atmospheric half-life. Human toxicity is usually caused accidentally by inhalation of its vapors, dermal absorption following direct skin contact, or ingestion; it may also be ingested deliberately as a suicidal agent. CE Expiration Date: December 31, 2021 Historically, CCl4 has been used in proton NMR spectroscopy. EPA will propose and take public comments on actions to address the unreasonable risks identified in the risk evaluation. Read about the steps in EPA’s risk evaluation process for carbon tetrachloride. This initial check will help you assess your current knowledge about carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Answer to: Carbon tetrachloride reacts at high temperatures with oxygen to produce two toxic gases, phosgene, and chlorine. Carbon tetrachloride - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information Note : See Working with the Information on this Page section below for important notes about this data. Toxic Mechanism: Chlorine reacts with water in the respiratory tract to form hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and it activates a free radial cascade bia reactive oxygen species. Human data on the carcinogenic effects of carbon tetrachloride are limited. Ans: Inhalation of carbon tetrachloride compounds by humans often leads to short terms of negative effects like vomiting, nausea, lethargy, headaches, and weakness. Isopropyl alcohol potentiation of carbon tetrachloride toxicity has been shown previously only in rats. Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Supplemental File Occupational Exposure Risk Calculator (XLSX)(249 K). As part of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment, the agency has completed a final risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Also critical to carbon tetrachloride toxicity are cellular antioxidant systems that function to quench the lipid peroxidation reaction, thereby preventing damage to … In the final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed 15 conditions of use, all of which are associated with industrial and commercial work and primarily involve the manufacturing of other chemicals. Learn more about EPA’s risk evaluation process, Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride (PDF), Nontechnical Summary of the Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride (PDF), Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition for Carbon Tetrachloride: Response to Support Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Supplemental File Information on Benchmark Dose Modeling and PBPK Model for Derivation IRIS RfC (POD for Chronic Inhalation Exposures) and IUR (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Supplemental File Information on Releases and Occupational Exposure Assessment (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride, Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Physical-Chemical Properties Studies (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride, Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Environmental Fate and Transport Studies (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride, Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Environmental Release and Occupational Exposure Data (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride, Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Environmental Releases and Occupational Exposure Data Common Sources (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride, Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Environmental Hazard Studies (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation for Human Health Hazard Studies -Animal and In Vitro Studies (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Human Health Hazard Studies - Epidemiological Studies (PDF), Final Risk Evaluation for Carbon Tetrachloride Systematic Review Supplemental File: Updates to the Data Quality Criteria for Epidemiological Studies (PDF), Assessing and Managing Chemicals under TSCA Home, How EPA Evaluates the Safety of Existing Chemicals, Prioritizing Existing Chemicals for Risk Evaluation. EPA has classified carbon tetrachloride as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. To take the initial check, read the case below and then answer the questions that follow. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (such as tetrachloromethane, also recognised by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4. EPA found unreasonable risks to workers and occupational non-users from 13 conditions of use of carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride has also been used in the detection of neutrinos. Carbon tetrachloride is one of the most potent hepatotoxins (toxic to the liver), and is widely used in scientific research to evaluate hepatoprotective agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a pre-approved provider of Certified in Public Health (CPH) recertification credits and is authorized to offer 2.0 CPH recertification credits for this program. CE Renewal Date: December 31, 2019 Please interpret the environmental medicine and the health education resources in light of specific information regarding the patient and in conjunction with other medical authorities. There are no consumer uses of this chemical. What Instructions Should Be Given to Patients? CCl 4 is highly toxic. Content will not include any discussion of the unlabeled use of a product or a product under investigational use. Current uses. EPA found unreasonable risks from most commercial uses of this chemical to workers in direct contact and workers nearby but not in direct contact with carbon tetrachloride (known as occupational non-users). Maximum advanced level continuing education contact hours available are 1.5. The next step in the process required by TSCA is risk management. Acetone, a product of isopropyl alcohol metabolism, is a major potentiator of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. EPA found no unreasonable risks to the environment from any conditions of use. The following risk calculator also supports the final risk evaluation. A) Carbon tetrachloride is a suspected human carcinogen. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is regarded as highly toxic. Workers using products containing carbon tetrachloride should continue to follow label instructions and applicable workplace regulations and should properly use appropriate personal protective equipment. Bruckner JV, MacKenzie WF, Muralidhara S, Luthra R, Kyle GM, Acosta D. This investigation was conducted to characterize the acute, subacute, and subchronic toxic potency of ingested carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). 1982 Treatment of carbon tetrachloride poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen. How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? CDC, our planners, content experts, and their spouses/partners wish to disclose they have no financial interests or other relationships with the manufacturers of commercial products, suppliers of commercial services, or commercial supporters. . Under Toxic Substances Control Act legislation, EPA has two years to finalize actions to address the unreasonable risks identified in its final risk evaluation of carbon tetrachloride. Complete the activity: https://tceols.cdc.gov/, To receive free continuing education, please visit the CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity registration page, To access the CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, please visit the Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity case study[462 KB], The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Download Printer-Friendly version [PDF - 1.6MB]. There will be additional opportunities for public participation. However, when heated to decomposition, it will emit fumes of extremely toxic phosgene and of hydrogen chloride. Truss CD, Killenberg PG. While EPA is working through the process required by TSCA to address the unreasonable risks found from carbon tetrachloride, the information below provides ways to reduce exposure. You can stay informed by signing up for our email alerts or checking the public docket at EPA-HQ-OPPT-2019-0499 at www.regulations.gov. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is accredited as a provider of Continuing Nursing Education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. Alcohols The toxicity of carbon tetrachloride is enhanced by concomitant ingestion of alcohol (Alswang, 1979). In order to receive continuing education (CE) for WB2888 Case Study in Environmental Medicine: Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity, please visit TCEO and follow these 9 Simple Steps before December 31, 2021. Hepatic toxicity in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride by inhalation or by equivalent oral dosing as bolus or 2-hour gastric infusion ........................................................... 72 Table 4-8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services The goal of Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM) is to increase the primary care provider’s knowledge of hazardous substances in the environment and to help in the evaluation and treatment of potentially exposed patients. Low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols can induce production of mixed-function oxidase enzymes, thereby potentiating the formation of carbon tetrachloride toxic intermediates and metabolites (Cornish and Adefuin, 1967; Traiger and Plaa, 1971; ATSDR, 1992a). In the November 2020 final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed the exposures and hazards of carbon tetrachloride uses and made the following final risk findings on this chemical. Unreasonable risks to workers and occupational non-users can come from long-term inhalation or dermal (through the skin) exposures. The following risk calculator also supports the final risk evaluation. CDC/ATSDR Planners: Germania Pinheiro, MD, PhD; Dianyi Yu, MD; John Doyle, MPA; Diana Cronin, CDC/ATSDR Commenters: Obaid Faroon, DVM, PhD; Kim Gehle, MD, MPH; Dan Middleton, MD; Alaina Steck, MD. As part of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment, the agency has completed a final risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Case A hazardous waste worker has delayed-onset abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Environmental Medicine Branch. 0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY A) Carbon tetrachloride has induced DNA damage and repair and unscheduled DNA synthesis in experimental animals; mutations, gene conversion, mitotic recombination, sex chromosome loss, and nondisjunction in microorganisms, and chromosome loss in hamster lung cells. Fees: No fees are charged for CDC’s CE activities. According to TSCA, the agency must finalize those actions within two years of completing the final risk evaluation. Gastroenterology 82:767-769. Following the comprehensive risk evaluation process required by TSCA ensures that the public has confidence in EPA’s final conclusions about whether a chemical substance poses any unreasonable risks to health or the environment under the conditions of use. During the past 20 years, study of the fatty liver induced by carbon tetrachloride has passed through 2 periods of revolutionary change, and at the present time a third revolutionary change is taking place. Contributors to this version of the "ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity" are listed below. Preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. Planners have reviewed content to ensure there is no bias. This then allows the public to have confidence in the risk management actions taken to ensure the safety of chemicals on the market. It was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants and as a cleaning agent, but has since been phas… Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) - and sometimes acute exposure to very high concentrations - produces liver and kidney damage. Sep 1984: Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Report, 1984) (Report) Mar 1982: Health Assessment Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (External Review Draft,1982) (Report) Additional EPA toxicity information may be available by visiting the following sites: Carbon tetrachloride toxicity as a model for studying free-radical mediated liver injury. This educational case study is one in a series of self-instructional modules designed to increase the primary care provider’s knowledge of hazardous substances in the environment. Carbon tetrachloride is one of the most potent hepatotoxins (toxic to the liver), and is widely used in scientific research to … Health Hazards Associated with CCl4. Carbon tetrachloride is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration. Carbon tetrachloride is an organic compound of which chemical formula is CCl₄. The state of knowledge regarding the treatment of patients potentially exposed to hazardous substances in the environment is constantly evolving and is often uncertain. It is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in … It has practically no flammability at lower temperatures. View the final risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride and supporting documents. CARBON TETRACHLORIDE is a commonly used liquid in fire extinguishers to combat small fires. Slater TF, Cheeseman KH, Ingold KU. Use of trade names in ATSDR products is for identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CCl4-induced liver damage was modeled in monolayer cultures of rat primary hepatocytes with a focus on involvement of covalent binding of CCl4 metabolites to cell components and/or peroxidative damage as the cause of injury. This includes unreasonable risks when manufacturing the chemical; processing the chemical as a reactant or intermediate and into formulation of other products; laboratory uses; recycling; uses in a variety of industrial and commercial applications; and disposal. Releasing a final risk evaluation is the last step in the scientific evaluation process required by TSCA and will guide the agency’s efforts to issue regulations to address unreasonable risks associated with this chemical. United States Environmental Protection Agency. For any chemical product, EPA strongly recommends that users carefully follow all instructions on the product’s label. This program is designed for Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES) and/or Master Certified Health Education Specialists (MCHES) to receive up to 1.5 total Category I continuing education contact hours. The carbon tetrachloride risk evaluation contains the agency’s final determinations on which conditions of use present unreasonable risks to human health or the environment based on a robust review of the scientific data. ATSDR, however, makes no claim that the environmental medicine and health education resources discussed in these products comprehensively address all possible situations related to various substances. In making these unreasonable risk determinations EPA considered the hazards and exposure, magnitude of risk, exposed population, severity of the hazard, uncertainties, and other factors. Oral toxicity of carbon tetrachloride: acute, subacute, and subchronic studies in rats. EPA’s proposed regulations could include requirements on how the chemical is used, or limiting or prohibiting the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of this chemical substance, as applicable. CAS number: 56–23–5 NIOSH REL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m 3) 60-minute STEL; NIOSH considers carbon tetrachloride to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990]. An official website of the United States government. Continuing Competency credits available are 1.5 CDC provider number 98614. 1989 OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m 3) TWA 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 … At the same time, the oral consumption of this molecule can also contribute to such symptoms. We gratefully acknowledge the work of the medical writers, editors, and reviewers in producing this educational resource. Sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a designated provider of continuing education contact hours (CECH) in health education by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Download Printer-Friendly version [PDF - 1.6MB], CSEM Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity registration page, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. When exposed to carbon tetrachloride, humans and animals will also excrete the unmetabolized parent compound in exhaled air. This final risk evaluation includes input from the public and peer reviewers as required by TSCA and associated regulations. The toxic effects of carbon tetrachloride are generally attributed to these reactive products. EPA will continue to keep the public updated as the agency moves through the risk management process. Traiger GJ, Plaa GL. Ingestion of most petroleum distillates > 1 – 2 ml/kg causes significant systemic toxicity. 10ml of essential oils/eucalyptus oil can lead to CNS depression and seizures (always within 1 – 2hrs) ... Hepatic and renal injury following carbon tetrachloride poisoning; The agency assessed the impact of carbon tetrachloride on aquatic and sediment-dwelling species through surface water and sediment exposures, and to terrestrial species. CE Original Date: December 31, 2017 For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. Carbon tetrachloride was also used as a component in the manufacture of lava lamps. There are no consumer uses of this chemical. When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: During the 1970s and ’80s, however, toxicologists discovered that inhalation of or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) can damage many organs, including the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system (see hazard table). It is a colourless liquid with a "sweet" smell that can be detected at low levels. For example, carbon tetrachloride safety data sheets developed by the manufacturer remind users to only use the product in well-ventilated areas. Just like the risk evaluation process, there will be opportunities for public comment as EPA works to propose and finalize risk management actions for carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride does not pose an unreasonable risk for two conditions of use: when processed as a reactant in reactive ion etching and in distribution in commerce. After reviewing these data, EPA found no unreasonable risk to the environment. CCl4 causes cellular damage in multiple organs, mostly in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. However, ample experimental data exist to show that both have the effect of enhancing toxicity (6,8). The possibility that alcohol or carbon monoxide exposure might have lessened Ccl, toxicity was considered. This CSEM focuses on carbon tetrachloride toxicity. A single dose of CCl4 when administered to a rat produces centrilobular necrosis and fatty degeneration of the liver. Mr. Norris cites studies that suggest that species sensitivity to liver toxicity is related to cytochrome P-450 content in liver and that rodents have greater unit P-450 activity and are more sensitive to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity than are Rhesus monkeys. It has no flash point, it is not flammable. In compliance with continuing education requirements, all presenters must disclose any financial or other associations with the manufacturers of commercial products, suppliers of commercial services, or commercial supporters as well as any use of unlabeled product(s) or product(s) under investigational use. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 20:105-112. Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. The products are intended for educational use to build the knowledge of physicians and other health professionals in assessing the conditions and managing the treatment of patients potentially exposed to hazardous substances. In the final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed 15 conditions of use, all of which are associated with industrial and commercial work and primarily involve the manufacturing of other chemicals. EPA has one year to propose and take public comments on any risk management actions. Note: Each content expert for this case study has indicated that he or she has no conflict of interest that would bias the case study content. Overall this causes an inflammatory response to the respiratory tract and corrosive injury to moist skin, eyes and the upper respiratory tract. 1971 Differences in the potentiation of carbon tetrachloride in rats by ethanol and isopropanol pre-treatment. This activity provides 1.3 contact hours. These documents provide information on the health effects of exposure, the chemical’s toxicity … Course: WB2888 Previous reports supporting the efficacy of hyper- baric oxygen therapy for carbon tetrachloride poi- Carbon tetrachloride has also been used in the detection of neutrinos. Studies in animals have shown that ingestion of carbon tetrachloride increases the risk of liver cancer. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. carbon tetrachloride to reactive species is the initial key event in the development of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. The final risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride, non-technical summary, response to comments, and other supporting documents are below. Current OSHA PEL: 10 ppm TWA, 25 ppm CEILING, 200 ppm 5-min MAXIMUM PEAK in any 4 hours. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is authorized by IACET to offer 0.1 CEU's for this program. CCl4has become a model for the study of agents that cause localized cellular injury via a free-radical mechanism. In the final risk evaluation , EPA reviewed 15 conditions of use, all of which are associated with industrial and commercial work and primarily involve the manufacturing of other chemicals. In developing its educational products, ATSDR has made a diligent effort to ensure the accuracy and the currency of the presented information. CCl4 is strong toxic in the kidney, testicle, brain, heart, lung, other tissues, and particularly in the liver. It is a known animal carcinogen and a potential human carcinogen.