[53], Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. A. Rosette of basal leaves. Family: Scrophulariaceae family of plants (as in Snapdragon). [67], Other insects commonly found on great mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus in particular. [42], Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. Other uses of the herb: Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Asia, neutralized in Australia and America. giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. Great Mullein is common and widespread throughout Britain and Ireland except for the far north. Some valuable constituents contained in Mullein are Coumarin and Hesperidin, they exhibit many healing abilities. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. Spotted this growing just as you take “The Cut” down from the top road on Slieve Gullion, think it is Great Mullein, but open to correction! Habitats include limestone glades, rocky slopes and clay banks, pastures and fallow fields, areas along railroads and roadsides, vacant lots, and Disturbed areas are preferred. Part Used: Leaves and flowers. Research indicates some of the uses as analgesic, antihistaminic, anti … [5] The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers[3] that can occupy up to half the stem length. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. Habitat of the herb: Sunny positions in uncultivated fields and waste ground, especially on dry soils. [10][12] Although not an agricultural threat, its presence can be very difficult completely to eradicate and is especially problematic in overgrazed pastures. [1] It is a minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum. Alias' : mullein, great mullein, wooly mullein, flannel plant, velvet plant, lungwort, feltwort, Jacob’s staff, torchplant. Moth mullein (top) and beardtongue (bottom) Other species with unusual and persistent seed pods that I like to incorporate into arrangements are beardtongue ( Penstemon digitalis ), a great native plant for pollinators, and moth mullein ( Verbascum blattaria ), a non-native weed. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. Phylum: Magnoliophyta - Class: Equisetopsida - Order: Lamiales - Family: Scrophulariaceae. Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. Those active ingredients include unique compounds, such as verbascose and verbasterol, as well as coumarins, ascorbic acid, saponins, and other antioxidants.For this reason, this herb can be ingested, smoked or applied topically in different forms … The dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next summer. Its small, yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves. European reference books call it "great mullein". [10], Seeds germinate in spring and summer. ---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn. … It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, and has become invasive in temperate world regions. [55], A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. Many other benefits have been claimed for this plant including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antifungal and antibacterial effects. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). [79] It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States[75] and United Kingdom. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant. It is a biennial, spending its first year as a rosette of furry leaves, and producing its flowers in its second year, between June and August. In New Zealand Mullein is a naturalised weed which favours poor, stony, disturbed ground and dry soil and is often to be found growing on roadsides. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. Description & Habitat: Mullein is a native of Europe and Western Asia. Mullein, Aaron’s rod Verbascum thapsus is also known as Great Mullein or flannel Mullein. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. Verbascum Thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. Brian Ballinger; Surveys of wild vascular plant species occurring on walls in 12 small towns and on 20 sections of rural wall in Easter Ross (vc106) were undertaken during the summer of 2020. The flowering period of V. thapsus lasts from June to August in most of its range, extending to September or October in warmer climates. The individual yellow flowers are typically 25mm across but, unlike foxgloves, the lower flowers do not necessarily open first. Habitat: Native to Britain, Europe and parts of Asia. A sweeter tea can be made by infusing the fresh or dried flowers. This wildflower is also found in most parts of mainland Europe including the Mediterranean region, where it thrives despite the long dry summers, and in northern Africa and parts of Asia. [2] The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. Great Mullein is common and widespread throughout Britain and Ireland except for the far north. These striking flowers, which in Britain and Ireland can be seen in bloom from June through to August, are usually at their best in July. The flowers turn brown with moisture & become in effective. [27] Both subsp. [31][75] The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. Intolerant of shade, mullein will grow in almost any open area including natural meadows and forest openings as well as neglected pastures, road cuts, industrial areas. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. [31][53][74][75] The seeds contain several compounds (saponins, glycosides, coumarin, rotenone) that are toxic to fish, and have been widely used as piscicide for fishing. crassifolium, the hairiness is less dense and often absent from the upper part of the anthers, while lower leaves are hardly decurrent and have longer petioles. [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen. Habitat : Alien, naturalized, biennial herb. Mullein is a biennial plant, the first … [2] Dioscorides first recommended the plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases. The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. David L. Hoffmann BSc Hons MNIMH. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. The great mullein thrives on open, sun-scorched areas, rocks, banks and barriers. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. Animals rarely graze it because of its irritating hairs, and liquid herbicides require surfactants to be effective, as the hair causes water to roll off the plant, much like the lotus effect. (× V. Mullein Habitat- Where to Find Mullein. Mullein is drought-resistant and grows easily from seed. The plant’s grey-green, oval leaves are covered in woolly hairs and appear in whorls around its tall stems. The flowers are small, and form dense, yellow clusters around the top of the spike. If so we are sure you would find our books Wonderful Wildflowers of Wales, vols 1 to 4, by Sue Parker and Pat O'Reilly very useful too. Growth and Habitat. Collection: The leaves are collected in mid-summer before they turn brown, dry in the shade. A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. Habitat Information Great mullein, a native biennial, is most frequently found on calcareous, free draining soils in rough grasslands and waste ground. The plant produces a shallow taproot. [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. They are native to Europe and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean. [9][10][12] The species is legally listed as a noxious weed in the American state of Colorado (Class C)[64] and Hawaii,[65] and the Australian state of Victoria (regionally prohibited in the West Gippsland region, and regionally controlled in several others). B. Mullein is an alien, naturalized, biennial herb. [19] Great mullein rarely establishes on new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. Edible parts of Great Mullein: An aromatic, slightly bitter tea can be made by infusing the dried leaves in boiling water for 5 - 10 minutes. A potential invasive species that could affect western Nebraska is Common mullein, an herbaceous biennial forb found throughout the … Common name: Great Mullein Latin name: Verbascum thapsus Other names: Common Mullein, Candlewick, Feltwort, Hare s Beard, Blanket Mullein, Quaker Rouge Family: Scrophulariaceae, Figwort family Habitat: Grows best in dry, sandy and chalky soils. Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. A location in full sun is preferable, but mullein will grow in light shade. Constituents: Phenolic glycosides... Dec 06. The 1630 number in Mitch may be a typo: the beginning of the 18th century is cited in other sources. [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=999782674, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 23:04. Its analgesic properties are also widely reported, and there have been cough mixtures based on mulleins. Mullein is the name for any of the over three hundred species of the genus Verbascum, which are large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. Ecological threat in the united states 9. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers. [9][10][12] Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. … Check out these photos of a fascinating plant. giganteum and subsp. [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. It gathers its strengths like this for one year, sometimes two. Top of flowering stem. Part Used: Dried leaves and … [31][34][41] The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. This is a reference to the hairy surfaces of the leaves, stems and bracts of this mullein. [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Given a seed source and a canopy opening, common mullein is a potential inhabitant of nearly any vegetation or community type. The seeds will keep in the … The pictures shown on this page were taken in North Wales in July. Habitat: Native to Britain, Dec 06. If correctly identified it is a biennial, during its first year it grows its velvety grey- green basal leaves and in the second year the spike of yellow flowers rises up and can reach to almost 2 metres. Description: Dicotyledonous, biennial plant, grows up to 2 meters. [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. While it may seem counterintuitive, you can actually smoke these leaves to improve lung health, due to the active ingredients of the plant. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. [27] In subsp. [2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. Widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America it is exceedingly abundant. [10] Effective (when used with a surfactant) contact herbicides include glyphosate,[9][12] triclopyr[9] and sulfurometuron-methyl. [72], Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. crassifolium were originally described as species. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). Description & Habitat: Mullein is a native of Europe and Western Asia. It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae family of angiosperms. In North America, South America and Australia Verbascum thapsus is an introduced alien species. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. It acts by reducing the formation of mucus and stimulating the coughing up of phlegm, and is a specific treatment for tracheitis and bronchitis[254]. In such ecological contexts, it crowds out native herbs and grasses; its tendency to appear after forest fires also disturbs the normal ecological succession. Collection: The leaves and flowers are gathered in the spring, in March and April. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. Habitat: Widely found in Europe and Asia. By the second year, the mature plants will provide a tall vertical element in the garden. Names: Aarons Rod, Great Mullein. [8][9] They become smaller higher up the stem,[3][4] and less strongly decurrent down the stem. This ability to grow in a wide range of habitats has been linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. Verbascum, the genus name, is a corruption of the Latin adjective barbascum, which means 'with a beard.' Common mullein. [44][45][46][47] It has also been reported in Japan. [18] European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation,[19] which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. Mullein is an invasive herb now considered naturalized to many countries. [1] As for many plants, (Pliny the Elder described it in his Naturalis Historia),[note 5] great mullein was linked to witches,[31] although the relationship remained generally ambiguous, and the plant was also widely held to ward off curses and evil spirits. The stalk has alternate … [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. Great Mullein is found growing on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground, most often on gravel, sand or chalk. Great mullein is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy, valued for its efficacy in the treatment of pectoral complaints[4].