In 1856, the great German historian and philologist Georg Voigt used humanism to describe Renaissance Humanism, the movement that flourished in the Italian Renaissance to revive classical learning, This historical and literary use of the word “humanist” derives from the 15th century Italian term umanista, meaning a teacher or scholar of Classical Greek and Latin literature and the ethical philosophy behind it. 5. The closer one came to perfect imitation of classical style, the nearer one approached intellectual perfection. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. Butler, J.Donald, Four Philosophies and Their Practice in Education and Religion. Important objectives include developing children's self-esteem, their ability to set and achieve appropriate goals, and their development toward full autonomy. More difficult selections such as Aesop’s Fables in Greek, and Cicero, Caesar, and Ovid in Latin made up the reading lists. proclaimed that humans literally go from earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust: When a man dies, his/her consciousness goes away and one cannot prove that it vanishes and exists somewhere else. Being conscious is a peculiar quality of the living human body. Humanism is one theory that has been used in both teaching and learning. The world is the material world only. Be a role model for the attitudes, beliefs and habits you wish to foster. However, some scholars believe, however, that this is a misunderstanding of the Humanism position since “no serious thinker could have included such a teaching” Humanism believes not in the notion of stringent philosophy, but in liberal beliefs. They saw the scriptures as characterized by three faults: falsity, self-contradiction, and tautology. Carl Rogers has been called the "Father of Humanistic Psychology" and devoted much of his efforts toward applying the results of his psychological research to person-centered teaching where empathy, caring about students, and genuineness on the part of the learning facilitator were found to be the key traits of the most effective t… Impression, 1976, p-868. There are many theories in education that have been drawn from psychology some of these have to do with teaching and others with learning. Rowan, J. Teachers even employed the exact methods of the ancient educationists, especially Quintilian’s. Following the lead of the Greek and Roman artists and authors the masters of the Renaissance glorified man human nature. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Physical education was extracurricular and usually part of organized sport activates. Grading encourages students to work for a gradeand not for personal satisfaction. The self has form as well as continuity. The mind and body were to be considered separate entities. It has an ultimate faith in humankind, and believes that human beings possess the power or potentiality of solving their own problems, through reliance primarily upon reason and scientific method applied with courage and vision. These originated independently of the humanistic psychology movement and at least some of them incorporate spiritual perspectives absent from the traditional humanistic approach. ~E. Mind knows the external world through the senses. Mohamed El-Masry Ali. Rusk, R.R., “Philosophical Basis of Education” p-68, footnote, London, University of London Press, 1956. There are a variety of ways teachers can implement the humanist view towards education. Humanistic education. To say that such entities exist is regarded as absurd, for no unverifiable assertion of existence is meaningful The Humanists did not deny the difference between the dead and the living and recognized both as realities. Humanism is a realistic philosophy. Humanism cultivated a philosophy where in theology is called “speculative metaphysics .According to the Humanists, there is no such thing as the soul. “We find insufficient evidence for belief in the existence of a supernatural; it is either meaningless or irrelevant to the question of the survival and fulfillment of the human race. Grading encourages students to work for a grade and not for intrinsic satisfaction. "The Waldorf Schools offer an approach to humanistic education which has stood the test of time." Help students learn to set realistic goals. It is not the goal of humanistic education to help students overcome deep-seated emotional problems. . University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1982 - Adult education - 238 pages. Cunningham, J.K., “Problems of Philosophy, p-05. Constantly work on becoming a better person and then share yourself with your students. Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England.The term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human … They do require sensitivity to students, classroom management skills, and the ability to conduct a class discussion. Humanistic education is a humane approach to education–one that helps students believe in themselves and their potential, that encourages compassion and understanding, that fosters self-respect and respect for others. Knowing how to learn is more important than acquiring a lot of knowledge. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world. Since reason or intellect is man’s noblest quality it behooves educators to concentrate their efforts on the development of intellectual power. They also believe testing doesn't provide sufficient educational feedback to the teacher. Humanism is a Renaissance movement in philosophy towards a more human-centered (and less religion-centered) approach. humanism philosophy of education provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Being conscious is a peculiar quality of the living human body The Humanists state that consciousness is not due to the soul. Rather, humanistic education seeks to help students to lean useful skills for living and to deepen their understanding of issues relevant to their academic and social development. One cannot, therefore say that Nature comprises some eternal laws. These are among the most important skills that humanistic education seeks to teach our youth. Cultural Humanism is the rational and empirical tradition that originated largely in ancient Greece and Rome, evolved throughout European history, and now constitutes a basic part of the Western approach to science, political theory, ethics, and law. However one cannot generalise on this process and establish a law that, whenever these elements come together in certain ratio, life and consciousness will emerge.  Their job is to foster an engaging environment for the students and ask inquiry-based questions that promote meaningful learning. “A system of thought that centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth.”American Heritage Dictionary. While the home and religion have the major responsibility in the value development and moral development of children, the school also has a legitimate role. For example, when yeast is blended with certain juices, they turn into wine. Thus, those philosophies oriented toward a rather rationalistic a priori type of thought will find the Humanists empirical and anti-intellectual. III. Students were expected to copy the teacher’s explanation and assigned themes based on the most beautiful passages in the material translated. The basic principles of humanism — claims and an emphasis on living a fulfilling and ethical life without religion — have been embraced by a wide variety of thinkers in different cultures for thousands of years. knowledge should be organized and relate to current experiences Teacher is a facilitator; helper; partner; promotes, but does not direct learning, sets mood for learning, acts as a flexible resource for learners. If there is a just God above us, then why is there so much injustice on the earth, against the poor and deprived sections of society?”. Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It can keep back the consciousness so long as the physical parts are healthy and stay together in a certain form. Literary style and eloquence (in Latin, of course) became the outward sign of the educated gentleman. Nothing but matter is real. Students learn best in a non-threatening environment. The measure of the student’s success in this endeavor was the imitation of Cicero’s style. HUMANISM It is an approach in study, philosophy, or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. Many of these humanist traditions have survived in some form to contribute to the humanist philosophies of the twenty-first century. Education is an important part of Humanists UK’s work. They accept the reality of whatever we can perceive with our senses and deny the reality of whatever we cannot so perceive. Education and culture were measured by one’s elegance of style, eloquence, and knowledge of classical lore. Different Kinds of Humanists 21. The teacher introduced each new passage : the student not permitted to go ahead on his own lest he make mistakes. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1960. In this school the elements, , when transformed into the body, intelligence is produced” just as the intoxicating power of some herbs is developed from the mixing of certain ingredients. The field of soka education studies took … Humanistic education is an approach to education based on the work of humanistic psychologists, most notably Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, and Rudolf Steiner. The term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm. It also tries to discover the truths about the universe and humanity’s place within it. Religion was taught as a separate subject. The third level covered advanced grammar and composition using more difficult selections from the classics as models.At the fourth level the study of rhetoric was introduced along with a complete review of grammar and syntax to assure their mastery. When the body is destroyed, intelligence at once perishes also. Humanism Defined 12 3. Education is the basic human need, and essential for a decent living and moral life. Experience gave knowledge of particulars which did not become true knowledge until reason had abstracted the essence of such particulars. Literary Humanism is a devotion to the humanities or literary culture. Humanistic education is a humane approach to education–one that helps students believe in themselves and their potential, that encourages compassion and understanding, that fosters self-respect and respect for others. They did not believe in the theory of divine creation of the universe by a supernatural power. Ethics is autonomous and situational.” In other words, morals are not derived from absolutes given by God, but are determined by the individual from situation to situation. There is no heaven, no hell, no God, and there are no objective ethical laws. This Life Is All and Enough. Frank Thilly, “A History of philosophy”, Central Publishing House, Allahabad, John Dewey, “Reconstruction in Philosophy,” p-38. • Humanism means religious freedom • Humanism is a proper adjustment in life • Humanism as a philosophy asserts that man is the centre and measure of all activities in the world • It means to express feeling about all human happenings • The purpose of humanism is to create interests in all spheres of life 8. The student himself is a part of this world. Art in all its forms, but especially literature, is the most excellent product of the human mind. Humanistic education is supported by years of research and experience. The approach seeks to engage the whole person: the intellect, feeling life, social capacities, artistic and practical skills are all important focuses for growth and development. Attendance at Mass and devotional exercises were required at boarding schools and sometimes of day students. The basic principles of humanism — claims and an emphasis on living a fulfilling and ethical life without religion — have been embraced by a wide variety of thinkers in different cultures for thousands of years. All of these approaches seek to engage the "whole person": the intellect, feeling life[clarification needed], social capacities, and artistic and practical skills are all important focuses for growth and development. At the next level down the educational ladder the teacher spent more time on etymology, the beauty and forcefulness of Latin style, and the many variations possible in writing and speaking Latin. It seems, then, that for the humanist, the primary aim of the Education as distinct from the broad notion of education carried on in the home, church, and social institutions, was the cultivation of the intellect of the student, The goal of education should be to foster students’ desire to learn and teach them how to learn. See. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Sixth Edition, III. Therefore, according to Humanism metaphysics, life also is only a new configuration of matter. The outdoor environment is very engaging for students. They must know how to gather information, distinguish fact from opinion, analyze propaganda, understand many different viewpoints, understand justice, think for themselves, communicate their opinions clearly, and work with others for the common good. This is one area where humanistic educators have had an impact on current educational practice. Of these human values, those involving the intellect of man received the greatest emphasis. Several other points about this method, especially at lower levels, are worth noting. And humanism has a firm position on ethics. Chinese philosophy, the thought of Chinese culture, from earliest times to the present.The keynote in Chinese philosophy is humanism: man and his society have occupied, if not monopolized, the attention of Chinese philosophers throughout the ages. The exemplars of style, of form, and the like were from classical masterpieces. Have students participate in group work, especially cooperative learning, in order to develop social and affective skills. Therefore the atman or self-awareness is only the physical body with a new emerging quality. Few parents have ever questioned the school’s role in encouraging the values of punctuality, fairness, health, courtesy, respect for property, neatness and the like. Humanism theory of knowledge is not exactly skepticism or agnosticism, but a fairly thoroughgoing positivism. II. Weber, Christian O., Basic Philosophies of Education. The complete break with church-controlled education came with the Reformation. Vocational education was school function at all since it was given by the skilled tradesman as on the job training. It values human life and our ability to enjoy our lives so long as we don't harm others in the process. The emphasis here is on internal development and self-regulation. A person lives, the same person dies: that is a perceived, and hence the only provable, fact. The Humanism metaphysics speak of the mind which is different from the soul . Exact meanings of words, proper word sequence in sentences, correct placement of modifiers were “drilled into” the students. Most educators who advocate humanistic education typically intend this approach to mean one or more of three things: Humanistic education teaches a wide variety of skills which are needed to function in today’s world–basic skills such as reading, writing and computation, as well as skills in communicating, thinking, decision-making, problem-solving and knowing oneself. The Unity of Body and Personality 88 2. Schools cannot and should not be “value-free.”, Humanism is often depicted as denying spiritual values and is accordingly “represented as discarding morality, and preaching what is reproachfully described as the principle of ‘good and no conscience”. In the field of education and especially in society today, “humanistic education” is thesubject of considerable interest and controversy. Humanists therefore recognize that we live in a natural universe of great size and age, that we evolved on this planet over a long period of time, that there is no compelling evidence for a separable “soul,” and that human beings have certain built-in needs that effectively form the basis for any human-oriented value system. The body together with its consciousness is the soul and consciousness in its experiencing function is the mind. Many humanistic education methods teach students how to do these things.. Several humanistic education approaches teach students to relax and control their nervous energy and to plan and take more responsibility for their time, Humanistic educators believe that schools have a role to play in the “values education” of students. Self-evaluation is the only meaningful evaluation of a student’s work. With John Dewey and Soka education providing a foundation, the Center seeks to define the essential character and purposes of education in the twenty-first century. The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts, The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning.”, Even though some scholars of the Renaissance discussed the problems of methodology, the teachers in the lower schools failed to make any significant changes in their approach to teaching. For these tests the student was expected to know all the vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and literary selections of each level. Humanism metaphysics are of the faith that there is no external cause for the elements coming together and obtaining the qualities of life and consciousness. People needed to learn ancient Greek and Latin in order to even begin to understand the ancient manuscripts. The teacher conducted the many vocabulary and grammar drills. Consciousness thus is an emergent quality of the physical parts coming together in specific proportions.. It can keep back the consciousness so long as the physical parts are healthy and stay together in a certain form. A humanistic philosophy of education as applied to the teaching of an introductory psychology course. Humanistic teachers believe it is important for students to be motivated and engaged in the material they are learning, and this happens when the topic is something the students need and want to know. Thus, beyond the very rudimentary training given in basic skills, the curriculum of the times was almost exclusively made up of the study of Latin and Greek grammar and the classics. The aims, the curriculum, the methods of teaching the outlook towards the child, the teachers, the discipline and the system of education all were given new blood. The orientation espoused today is that the environment should by psychologically and emotionally, as well as physically, non-threatening. Fortunately, each meaning of the word constitutes a different type of humanism — the different types being easily separated and defined by the use of appropriate adjectives. THEMES: Humanistic Philosophy & Education. Humanists recognize that intuitive feelings, hunches, speculation, flashes of inspiration, emotion, altered states of consciousness, and even religious experience, possess no valid means to acquire knowledge First, knowledge based on verbal testimony is inferential and so vitiated by all the defects of inference.