Upon returning from a hunting expedition, King Louis XIV feels a sharp pain in his leg. In 1938 exhibitions and cultural events were organised in France for the 300th anniversary of Louis XIV’s birth. [108], Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government. By the end of the 17th century, … Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties. French society would sufficiently change by the time of his descendant, Louis XVI, to welcome tolerance in the form of the 1787 Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance. Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. The members of that council were called ministers of state. On April 8 in 1711, Wednesday in Easter week, Monseigneur, as the Dauphin was called, left the château de Versailles for his own residence, the chateau de Meudon. Against all expectations, Louis the Beloved died an unpopular king. He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale, were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways. Philip V of Spain, however, had not fully renounced his claim to the French throne despite the provisions of the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in 1691 and Namur in 1692. It was headed by the highest-ranking French nobles, among them Louis' uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans and first cousin Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, known as la Grande Mademoiselle; Princes of the Blood such as Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, and their sister the Duchess of Longueville; dukes of legitimised royal descent, such as Henri, Duke of Longueville, and François, Duke of Beaufort; so-called "foreign princes" such as Frédéric Maurice, Duke of Bouillon, his brother Marshal Turenne, and Marie de Rohan, Duchess of Chevreuse; and scions of France's oldest families, such as François de La Rochefoucauld. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. [99] This approaches the career of a professional ballet dancer.[104]. The treaty yielded many benefits for France. In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as one of the provisions of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings. Based on extensive medical records and the memoirs of the Duke of Saint-Simon and other courtiers, The Death of Louis XIV is a wry neoclassical chamber drama, a work of pure magic by Albert Serra, one of today s most singular directors. His revocation of the Edict of Nantes abolished the rights of the Huguenot Protestant minority and subjected them to a wave of dragonnades, effectively forcing Huguenots to emigrate or convert, and virtually destroying the French Protestant community. The archbishopric had traditionally been held by the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, but the Bavarian claimant to replace Maximilian Henry, Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria, was at that time not more than 17 years old and not even ordained. Even while French Catholic leaders exulted, Pope Innocent XI still argued with Louis over Gallicanism and criticised the use of violence. [92], Louis was a pious and devout king who saw himself as the head and protector of the Catholic Church in France. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name". Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in 1693. This allocated Spain, the Low Countries, and the Spanish colonies to the Archduke. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism, which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assembly of the French clergy in November 1681. Domestically, he successfully increased the influence of the crown and its authority over the church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France. In 1679, he dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne, because he was seen as having compromised too much with the allies. By the Truce of Ratisbon, in 1684, Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.[39]. Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, France's leading military strategist, warned Louis in 1689 that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea. Birthplace: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France Location of death: Versailles, France Cause of death: unspecified Rema. In 1705, the Emperor Leopold I died. [33], Louis placed little reliance on his agreement with Leopold and as it was now clear French and Dutch aims were in direct conflict, he decided to first defeat the Republic, then seize the Spanish Netherlands. Anne was virtually under house arrest for a number of years during her husband's rule. They were among the most significant means to spread royal propaganda prior to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. He sometimes danced leading roles which were suitably royal or godlike (such as Neptune, Apollo, or the Sun). The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the League of Augsburg and disbanded the Grand Alliance. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. Only four days later he would have turned 77 years old. Few rulers in world history have commemorated themselves in as grand a manner as Louis. [53] The wars were very expensive but defined Louis XIV's foreign policy, and his personality shaped his approach. [124] Voltaire's history, The Age of Louis XIV, named Louis' reign as not only one of the four great ages in which reason and culture flourished, but the greatest ever. The Death of Louis XIV (French: La Mort de Louis XIV) is a 2016 historical drama film directed by Albert Serra and starring Jean-Pierre Léaud.Set in 1715, it depicts the final days of Louis XIV of France.The film had its world premiere at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival … If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's in the 16th century. If the Duke of Berry declined it, it would go to the Archduke Charles, then to the distantly related House of Savoy if Charles declined it.[79]. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes, as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in 1678, dental abscesses in 1696, along with recurring boils, fainting spells, gout, dizziness, hot flushes, and headaches. After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. [116], Some historians point out that it was a customary demonstration of piety in those days to exaggerate one's sins. Louvois, in particular, pledged to modernize the army and re-organize it into a professional, disciplined, well-trained force. Louis XIV, also popularly known as the Sun King (5 September 1638–1 September 1715) was the King of France and King of Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda. In 1669, Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy to revive the old Franco-Ottoman alliance. By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years. The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. The Dutch were given the right to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands that acted as a protective barrier against possible French aggression. It is believed that Louis's policies were rooted in his experiences during the Fronde, when men of high birth readily took up the rebel cause against their king, who was actually the kinsman of some. In addition to portraits, Louis commissioned at least 20 statues of himself in the 1680s, to stand in Paris and provincial towns as physical manifestations of his rule. Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state)—composed of the king, the crown prince, the controller-general of finances, and the secretaries of state in charge of various departments. Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good. Vehemently anti-French, William (now William III of England) pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance. This was felt by the Netherlands, France's Protestant ally, which negotiated a separate peace with Spain in 1648.[13]. France, however, profited most from the settlement. He also attracted, supported and patronized such artists as André Charles Boulle, who revolutionised marquetry with his art of inlay, today known as "Boulle Work". [84] In desperation, Louis ordered a disastrous invasion of the English island of Guernsey in the autumn of 1704 with the aim of raiding their successful harvest. Sadly Louis had had to deal with the deaths of all but two of his direct descendant, only his grandson Philip V of Spain and a great-grandson, his own successor, Louis XV outlived the Sun King . [104] For Louis, ballet may not have merely been a tool for manipulation in his propaganda machinery. By the early 1680s, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world. After reigning for 72 years, Louis XIV was diagnosed with gangrene and the Sun King died at the Palace of Versailles on 1 September 1715. [128] It was widely repeated but also denounced as apocryphal by the early 19th century. First, in 1685, the Elector Palatine Charles II died. As Louis aged, so too did the manner in which he was depicted. The French film La mort de Louis XIV was shown in the U.S. with the translated title The Death of Louis XIV (2016). Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France. On 29 August a man who claimed to have a miracle cure, one Brun, was granted permission to approach the royal bed. . Despite the image of a healthy and virile king that Louis sought to project, evidence exists to suggest that his health was not very good. The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness. This, along with the prohibition of private armies, prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority. Through these liaisons, he produced numerous illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family. Séguier was the person who had interrogated Anne in 1637, treating her like a "common criminal" as she described her treatment following the discovery that she was giving military secrets and information to Spain. The Frondeurs claimed to act on Louis' behalf, and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin. In 1910, the American historical novelist, Louis is a major character in the 1959 historical novel, A character based on Louis plays an important role in, The 15-year-old Louis XIV, as played by the Irish actor, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1638–1715, Gabrielle Angelique, Duchess of La Valette and Epernon, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 20:50. They regard the political and military victories as well as numerous cultural achievements as the means by which Louis helped raise France to a preeminent position in Europe. He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. Moreover, Louis sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands to evict Dutch garrisons and secure Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, Philip transferred the asiento (the right to supply slaves to Spanish colonies) to France, as a sign of the two nation's growing connections. Maria Theresa died in 1683, whereupon Louis remarked that she had never caused him unease on any other occasion. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio ("whose realm, his religion"), the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm (as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555).[56]. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France and Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death in 1715. This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan, superbly received at Versailles in 1686. Henriette, Duchesse d’Orléans, the sister-in-law of Louis XIV, took a drink of her usual chicory water and immediately clutched her side, crying out in pain. 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