While accepting that colonialism is associated with political power and economic gains, Nandy adds that "colonialism is a state of mind" or a "psychological state rooted in earlier forms of social consciousness in both the colonisers and the colonised. They were replaced gradually by indigenous officers who had served under the expatriates, and so become committed to the same colonial ideologies and practices (Dwivedi, 1991). Furthermore, it is evident that these international financial institutions and multi-national corporations are closely linked and controlled by the former colonial powers (Barrat Brown, 1982). It suggests PNG should achieve development through the use of the distinctively indigenous forms of social, political and economic organisation. It is suggested that it was the importation and exploitation of cheap raw materials from the colonies that enabled the rapid growth of capitalism in Europe. Melanesian areas, namely Fiji, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and PNG, were seized by different imperial powers late in the nineteenth century (Brookfield, 1972: 20-23). After five weeks in the Territory, their assessment was presented in a report that became known as the Foot Report, after the leader of the five member team headed by Sir Hugh Foot, UK Ambassador to the UN. It should be noted that a centralised bureaucracy persists in PNG and that any democratic reforms that the government might propose have to filter through this bureaucracy. It can be reflected in the values system which structures the relationship between the coloniser and the colonised. In 1972, the name of the territory was changed to Papua New Guinea. The notion of "conducive environment" referred to the need to pacify warring factions through the establishment of law and order so that capital accumulation could proceed unhindered. Note - While efforts are made to ensure accuracy this publication could include errors or inaccuracies and no responsibility is taken for the consequences of its use. Each was concerned with the building of its own empire. In the ninetieth century, there were a wide variety of reasons given for colonial activity. Colonialist ideologies had basically denied the existence of a traditional education system, and certainly had not legitimised it. Ward effectively admitted that Australia had not done enough to ensure the development of both Papua and New Guinea. The government of PNG is involved in steering both sectors of the economy: the cash as well as the traditional. The usage and transfer of land are governed by unwritten customary laws and practices administered by the leaders of various tribes. Thus to a large extent development is contextually defined, and should be an open ended concept, to be constantly re-defined as our understanding of the process deepens, and new problems to be resolved by "development" emerge ... Theorising about development is therefore a never-ending task. These people live in scattered villages and hamlets, often in inaccessible terrain. (Cited in Pora, 1991:1). Recent post-Marxist analyses of colonialism, for example, the work of Hommi Bhabba (1994), are instructive. by Akinpelu (1981) the imposition of the Western education was meant to reinforce the colonial conditions by inculcating the values of the colonial society and training individuals for the service of the colonial state. Simultaneously, however, the traditional life-styles have not been abandoned. The administrative system that the Papuan colonial authorities set up was concerned solely with the issues of law and order, and owed much to the British colonial experience in the Western Pacific, especially Fiji. Modernisation theory has been criticised as being Eurocentric, evolutionary and economistic in its perspective. First, they suggested that the emphasis of development should be on the areas and provinces which had the greatest economic potential--any investment should thus be strategic and prioritised. Colonialism is not only expressed in political and economic forms. This topography of the land presents major challenges for the PNG government, especially with respect to its capacity to provide in some equitable manner the quantity and quality of goods and services required by the people. First, it was suggested that the presence of Europeans in the colonies helped pacify the warring tribes which had been fighting each other for generations. In the 1950s, Local Government Councils were established in a number of areas (Mair, 1970:81-107). The Momis Report effectively provided the framework for PNG's current Constitution, defining the powers and responsibilities of each of the levels of government. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA). John Gunther, a colonial administrator, writes the article “More English, More Teachers” arguing that Papua New Guinea’s education system did not need to use local languages. Most people from Africa, Asia and South America, live in the aftermath of colonialism, while others, for example the Indigenous Peoples of North America, Australia, New Zealand, Latin and Central America still live in colonial bondage. To the East, PNG shares the boundary with the Independent Island State of Solomon Islands. www.ngo.org.pg is a related project sponsored under the same initiative. The two island nation-states are separated by a vast area of oceans, where thousands of tuna fish worth billions of Kina, regularly migrate during particular seasons (Rodwell, 1992). The Department of Education reformed the curriculum (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2002), based on the Matane Report, entitled ‘A Philosophy of Education’ (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2003, p. 4). Dependency theory thus emerged as a reaction to modernisation theory and is largely based on the experiences of the Third World countries, in particular those in Latin America. Chalmers, of the London Missionary Society, wrote in 1895, Retain native customs as much as possible--only those which are objectionable should be forbidden--leave it to the influence of education to raise (the people) to the purer and more civilised customs. Finally, the Report criticised Australia for being tardy in promoting the Territory's political development. Ideas and concepts do not occur in a vacuum, but are the products of the social, cultural and historical events surrounding them (Fagerlind and Saha, 1989:5). Such a background is necessary for a discussion of the issues concerning the policy of devolution in PNG educational administration. While this initiative had a democratic intent, the councillors often became informants rather than decision-makers. Instead, we think it is more appropriate to see the consequences of colonization of village life as generative. The emphasis was on instituting a form of indirect rule, through the representatives of the colonial authority, the "kiaps", and their indigenous agents, "mausmen". Each tribe has its own culture. To achieve their objectives, they not only assumed ownership of customary land without payment to the indigenous people, but also began to employ indigenous labour to cultivate their cash crops (Mair, 1970). They had viewed the Labor Government's attitudes towards the Territory as a major threat to their economic interests which, after almost fifty years in the Territory, had become entrenched. With the acquisition of land came the missionaries, planters and settlers, traders and administrators who became heavily involved in the "development" of PNG (Rowley, 1985), supposedly for the benefit of the indigenous people. Information will be updated on a regualar basis and content can be expected to vary considerably over time. A complex system of customary land ownership hampers the mobilisation for development. The World Bank classifies PNG as a lower middle-income country (World Bank Report, 1988:2). Between 1973 and 1975, the progress towards full political independence for Papua and New Guinea was rapid. In each District the work of the Kiaps was co-ordinated by Commissioners who were in turn accountable to the colonial Administrator in Port Moresby. Upon independence in 1975 the new Somare Government recognised the enormous challenges it faced in constructing an indigenous system of public administration. The traders sought to "develop" timber, copra and beche-de-mer industries. After independence in 1975, "and" was dropped and the new nation is called Papua New Guinea (PNG) to signify the construction of a unified entity. For the notion of social development is much more complex and multifaceted than is implied by the talk of biological growth and maturation. According to Biskup, Jinks & Nelson (1968), the Europeans in the Territory suggested that even limited self-government was "to kick the Big Firms in the teeth, discourage European enterprise in any shape or form, and subvert all considerations to that of native welfare". The reference to "integral human development" in the national constitution was designed to highlight the fact that the western model(s) of development which might have been good for the German, British and Australian colonisers were not necessarily relevant to PNG's political, social, economic, cultural and educational needs; and that political independence had provided PNG with an opportunity to define "development" in its own distinctive way. As has already been pointed out, this makes the provision of social services like health, education and extension support like agriculture, law and order, road networks, transport and communication by the State, not only difficult, but also very expensive. What implications does this have for the attempts to institute democratic reforms in PNG educational administration? I cannot emphasise too strongly, therefore, that we welcome only those companies that are prepared to make a major commitment to the development aims of this country. Papua New Guineans now identify themselves with this new name. Secondly, it is suggested that the colonial construction of PNG was accomplished through the creation of a powerful centralised bureaucracy. Papua New Guineans often experience the best and the worst characteristics of each type of society. For us to be completely landless is a nightmare with no dollar in the pocket, dollar in the bank with allay; we are threatened people". Papua New Guinea (PNG) was granted its political independence from Australia in 1975. This supposedly illegal movement of people and the exploration of oil and gas in the region, as well as increased drug smuggling, are causing considerable friction between the Australian and PNG governments. It was claimed that the British achieved social control by denying education to Africans (Ball, 1983). This thinking has its roots in the original work of the famous sociologist, Talcott Parson. This represents an increase of 2.8 percent on the last census in 1980 (National Census Office, 1990). The first European visitor may have been Jorge de Meneses, who possibly landed on the island in 1526–27 while en route to the Moluccas. In traditional terms, most of the land, sea and reef are owned by the members of clans and tribes. It requires the formation of a particular power relationship between the coloniser and the colonised. Spybey (1992:24) argues that it is a relationship in which the "industrialised West stands in a relationship of exploitation with the Third World". For them, education was no longer a collective responsibility of the members of the community but the responsibility of a few, who were believed to possess special expertise. These sub-systems are linked and operate harmoniously as part of the System. In delivering the PNG Government's Policy Statement to the fifth national parliament, the then Prime Minister, Pais Wingti, suggested that: The scandalous exploitation of this country's natural resources, such as our forests and fisheries, has become a matter of National concern. The luluais were supposed to act as the "mausman" or spokesmen of the Government, and were responsible for collecting taxes, settling minor disputes and reporting major disputes to the Government. In 1992, the government of PNG reformed its national education system with an aim of creating a better social system. The push for self-government for the indigenous people came about as a result of a range of other factors (Downs, 1980:459-484). In 1962, a United Nations Visiting Team toured PNG and made an assessment on the status of the political, economic and educational development of the Territory. By the Second World War, the administrative systems of Papua and New Guinea had become remarkably similar (Downs, 1980). The intention was to produce an educated elite for the purposes of governing the country and for providing the human resources needed for Papua and New Guinea's economic development. This relationship is not only dictated by the politics of the international financial institutions but also the politics of aid. When you take away our land, you cut away the heart of our existence. Politically, the colonial powers were rivals. Theirs was a world-view that was not only ethnocentric but which also demanded complete assimilation. This creates a situation of divided loyalties. The PNG Government accuses the Solomon Islands government of harbouring and supporting the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (Post-Courier, 30 April 1993). It is significant to note, however, that the Fifth Directive is couched in terms of an aspiration that is post-colonial: the emphasis on the Papua New Guinea "ways" expresses a set of values that are defined in opposition to the colonial values into which Papua New Guineans were supposed to assimilate prior to political independence. Colonists lived in a state of moral, social and economic poverty. As Spybey (1992:23-24) argues: The fundamental principle of dependency theory is that the Third World is not, as modernization theory suggests, an area ripe for development along a pathway taken previously by European countries, but instead is a subsidiary part of the Western capitalist system and has been so since the spread of colonialism. This is not surprising since they are formulated within Western academies, and are articulated from a Western vantage point. Such a bureaucracy was considered essential for achieving the State's cohesion and the nation's identity. They see themselves as people of New Ireland, Manus, East New Britain, Papuans or Highlanders. The availability of land is particularly important for major economic sectors (agriculture, forestry, mining). There was a tremendous demand for education that was far beyond the ability of the missions to provide. And, finally, the linear cyclical model rejects the view that development must always be considered in terms of material progress. In recent years, the traditional right to the land has been challenged, as the government now claims the right of ownership to the nation's natural resources, especially: minerals like gold and copper (Connell, 1992); oil and gas (MacPherson, 1992); forests (Taylor, 1992); and fish (Waugh 1992). 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