Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. SOLUTION LAKES. 4). For example, when we thought of lakes we knew of in francophone North America (i.e., Louisiana, Québec), it seemed that Lake Name was more common in those regions. The fact that Connecticut and Vermont had a relatively high proportion (50 and 25%, respectively) use of Lake Name also seemed to counter our prediction for New England. a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land, a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal, any of numerous bright translucent organic pigments. It eases errors corrections in a data analytics process from origin to destination. These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. The patterns in English lake names remained to be verified, but as we listed the English lakes we knew, they mostly seemed to use Name Lake (including Windermere, for which ‘mere’ means inland sea, derived from the French ‘mer’). This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. The waterbodies sampled were chosen in a randomised, stratified design to include coverage of waterbodies in five lake area categories (4–10 ha, >10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). We thank Philip Taylor of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K. The flow of a river is usually not straight but the river bends and meanders throughout … Final revisions may significantly change some of the information in these fact sheets. Fluvial lakes. Maryland, the heaviest user of Lake Names, was originally mapped by the 16th century Spanish Ajacán Mission, also serving as a refuge for some French‐speaking Acadians exiled from Canada in the 1750s (Griffiths, 1992), and for some religious refugees of the French Revolution. Ecoregions where Lake Name was more common were: Southern Florida Coastal Plain (XIII), Southern Coast Plain (XII) and Eastern Coastal Plains (XIV). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Data Exploration. There is also documented French Huguenot and Acadian immigration into the Carolinas, with South Carolina having the largest French population of the 13 original colonies (Edgar, 1998). In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. In 1840 there were 239 Lake families living in New York. Further investigation revealed that in the French and Spanish languages, the only limnological nomenclature possible is Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively). A. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. In contrast, when Name Lake is used, terms for Lake include Broad, Flash, Mere, Mor, Pool, Tarn and Water. We thank the Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL) at UQAM for financing CCC's trip to Montréal to give a seminar, making the discussion possible. The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. Lake Classification A lake’s ability to support plant and animal life defines its level of productivity, or trophic state. 1. Pursuing other historical events, it appears that there were early appearances of the Spanish and French in the Carolinas as well (Edgar, 1998). Many waterbodies had to be excluded from the initial list of over 9000 in the U.K., as these represented dams, dykes, rivers, harbours and gravel pits. Tadalafil cost in india. In Douglas County there are three lake classifications. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version of this article. Surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Across the U.S.A., lakes with larger surface areas were more likely to have a Lake Name, but there was no significant relationship between nomenclature and maximum depth. "to play, sport," Old English lacan (see lark (n.2)). Whether a lake is small, big or very large. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Biological Sciences and Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), University of Quebec at Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. Proportion of lakes in each U.S. state with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Québec's high proportion of Lake Names in comparison to the other provinces dominated by English settlers further supports our colonisation hypothesis in another region of North America. Lake Baikal Seal Interestingly, we found considerable geographical variation in the distribution of lake nomenclature at the ecoregion level, with Lake Name, when it was used, being done so predominantly in eastern and southern regions along the eastern seaboard, partially supporting our hypotheses. A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). p° LAKE. 2a). 2d). We examined the potential drivers of lake naming patterns using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment database of. "deep red coloring matter," 1610s, from French laque (15c., see lac), from which it was obtained. All single variable (lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion) logistic regression models predicting lake nomenclature were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). Generally, with the exception of Connecticut and Vermont, the other New England states (Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire) behaved as expected, with their waterbodies dominated by Name Lakes, as in England. Lake – Classification of Lakes Lakes are among the most varied features of the earth’s surface. Particularly in temperate zones, such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake is said to be oligotrophic. The rationale for the naming of lakes has often puzzled limnologists. Okauchee Lake in Waukesha County is an example of a lake in this study type with long-term data. Of our final dataset of 814 NLA ‘lakes’, 158 (19%) had a Lake Name and the remaining 656 (81%) had a Name Lake (Fig. 16. Probably not from lacus, a lake, as no consideralile body of Waaler exists in some of the localities so called ; but either from lalw as applied to any small rivulet in the western counties, or from a hard pronunciation of the A- Sax. The final list consisted of 3468 lakes. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. While each lake is unique and deserving of an individual management plan, it is impractical and unrealistic for broad units of government to strive to manage all lakes individually. We explored potential drivers of lake nomenclature in the U.S.A. using data obtained from the NLA, focusing on variables that likely influenced a lake's naming convention. We observed significant effects of latitude and longitude on the likelihood of lake nomenclature. 1). Louisiana, which was settled as a colony of France in the late 1600s before being ceded to Spain in 1763, is unsurprisingly also one of the heaviest users of Lake Name. Thus, we hypothesised that the varied lake nomenclature across North America may also result from the languages of the different major colonising groups from Europe. Interestingly, the relationship between lake area and lake name was stronger for the naturally formed lakes (χ2 = 34.21, P < 0.0001) than for man‐made lakes (χ2 = 10.34, P = 0.001), indicating that historical factors may play a role in lake nomenclature since natural lakes would have been named earlier than the more recently formed reservoirs. These results support the contention relating much of lake nomenclature to linguistic history, but that where linguistic flexibility occurs (Ireland, Scotland and Wales), lake size is also an important feature of naming patterns. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Examining naming patterns by EPA ecoregion and by state revealed that Lake Names were more common in the southern states and along the eastern seaboard, regardless of their surface area. This relationship was primarily driven by lakes in Scotland, the only country that individually exhibited a significant relationship between lake nomenclature and lake size (χ2 = 25.62, P < 0.0001; all other countries had P ≥ 0.09). Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. However, there are several other less visible lake characteristics that are just as significant, yet rarely discussed: namely the shape and structure of a lake basin. When Lake Name is used for a waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch. These states were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin. e.g. Freshwater lakesMost of the lakes in the world are freshwater lakes. Classification suggests that New York had the highest population of Lake families in 1840. The continental lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences among ecoregions (Fig. We are grateful to J.P. Doubek for his assistance in preparing the GIS map, and we thank the Starbucks on the corner of St. Denis and Ontario Streets in Montréal for providing the caffeine that fuelled our initial conversation about the intriguing case of lake nomenclature. We investigated the nomenclature of lakes using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment (NLA), a comprehensive survey of waterbodies in the contiguous U.S.A. in 2007. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada) using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). Analysis of available databases of lake nomenclature in Europe and Canada suggests that these geographical shifts in lake names may be due to the main European colonist source countries that settled these regions, with Lake Name predominating in countries where Gaelic and Romance linguistic influences were strongest. We conclude that there is evidence for lakes to have a Lake Name syntax in English when they have a larger surface area, or when they occur in a region where the Gaelic forms of English, as well as the Romance Languages, have had a significant influence. Aggregated together, Scotland, Ireland and Wales had up to an order of magnitude more Lake Names than Name Lakes (Table 2). "body of water surrounded by land and filling a depression or basin," early 12c., from Old French lack (12c., Modern French lac) and directly from Latin lacus "pond, pool, lake," also "basin, tank, reservoir" (related to lacuna "hole, pit"), from PIE *laku- "body of water, lake, sea" (source also of Greek lakkos "pit, tank, pond," Old Church Slavonic loky "pool, puddle, cistern," Old Irish loch "lake, pond"). As a melting pot of cultures, the U.S.A. is a classic case of linguistic mélange, evident in the way its people have come to refer to its waterbodies. In 1957, Hutchinson published a monograph that is regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, and distribution. Early History of the lake family. In particular, 100% of the lakes in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain were called Lake Names (Fig. Why several parts of the Eastern seaboard – in particular, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Connecticut, as well as scattered states in the central U.S.A. – use Lake Name is less immediately clear. Depending on its origin, a lake may occur anywhere within a river basin. Differences in state sizes and number of lakes per state likely account for some this variation. Lakes are commonly classified based on their productivity. Note that the naming convention of ‘lake’ did not necessarily indicate that a waterbody was naturally formed, as some of the ‘lakes’ were defined in the NLA as having been of man‐made origin. In Middle English, lake, as a descendant of the Old English word, also could mean "stream; river gully; ditch; marsh; grave; pit of hell," and this might have influenced the form of the borrowed word. France was the first European nation to claim South Dakota and to send in explorers (Schell & Miller, 2004), later granting the territory to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the same treaty that ceded Louisiana (Francis, 2006). The relationship with lake size was based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology. The chemical-biological changes within a lake’s history offer a fine example of ecological succession. Salt LakesSalt Lake is an inland … North American lakes in the U.S.A. (and Canada) do not have the naming consistency of lakes in England, Spain, France or Germany because of the mixed influence of these various countries with different conventions. Importance of lake origin - hydrology (inputs,outputs) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age . The Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Salt Lake were excluded from the NLA sampling programme, as were waterbodies not classified as lakes (e.g., swamps) in the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD; Dewald, 2006). There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. This lake has been monitored for water quality since 1984 (Wisconsin District Lake Studies Team, 2002). Finally, in the other dominant Germanic ‘West Teutonic’ language (German), the word for lake ‘See’ almost always comes second (e.g., Müggelsee), as in English‐speaking Great Britain, where Name Lake also dominates. We note, however, that some lakes may have changed their nomenclature over time, as different waves of colonizers occupied the same regions, making definitive conclusions regarding the historical influences sometimes murky. Lake Classification Fact Sheet Series For years NR 115 (the rule that governs shoreline zoning) has been going through a public process for revision. 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