Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French Huguenots grieving after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (August 24–25, 1572), in which thousands of Huguenots were killed by French Catholic forces. Quizlet The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). As on the other side ultra-Catholic and anti-royalist doctrines were closely associated, so on the side of the two kings the principles of tolerance and royalism were united. By September 17, almost 25,000 Protestants had been massacred in Paris alone. Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, leader of the Catholic League, funded and supported by Philip II of Spain. However, the Massacre of Vassy in 1562 is agreed to have begun the Wars of Religion; up to a hundred Huguenots were killed in this massacre. King Francis I died on March 31, 1547, and was succeeded to the throne by his son Henry II. In July 1589, in the royal camp at Saint-Cloud, a Dominican monk named Jacques Clément gained an audience with the King and drove a long knife into his spleen. The wars ended with Henry’s embrace of Roman Catholicism and the religious toleration of the Huguenots guaranteed by the Edict of Nantes (1598). He also welcomed to France many Italian artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci.Their influence assured the success of the Renaissance style.The years between 1562 and 1598 saw an increase in the number of the Huguenots (Protestants), which led to the Wars of Religion between Catholics and Protestants. An organized influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the 1550s succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Jeanne and Antoine of Navarre . The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Embark upon a historical journey of warfare in this quiz. Homework: Complete Ch 5 reading and Ch 5 flashcards or quizlet- Both due Monday, October 12. In the wake of the posters, the French monarchy took a harder stand against the protesters. Omissions? The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations primarily between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). Wellington’s character: As commander of the allied forces in the Peninsular war in Spain and Portugal, Wellington was known for attention to detail. This segment of the wikibook would serve as an excellent revie… As the Huguenots gained influence and displayed their faith more openly, Roman Catholic hostility to them grew, even though the French crown offered increasingly liberal political concessions and edicts of toleration. Outside of Paris, the killings continued until October 3. The exact number of fatalities throughout the country is not known, but estimates are that between about 2,000 and 3,000 Protestants were killed in Paris, and between 3,000 and 7,000 more in the French provinces. What was the Peace of Westphalia and its significance? Wellington? In terms of religion, the Treaty confirmed the Peace of Augsburg and added Calvinism to Lutheranism and Catholicism as a recognized faith. As the reformation spread throughout Europe, it gained popularity in Switze… The Thirty Years' War was a terrifying war whose destruction was only matched by the First and Second World Wars. 9. Who reigns from 1563-1574? Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Could outside powers tweak their participation to cause prolonged statement and partition? In response, charismatic individuals developed cults among remote Melanesian populations that promised to bestow on their followers deliveries of food, arms, Jeeps, etc. In Germany the territorial formula of, …a long succession of civil wars. What were the outcomes of the Wars of Religion? What were the causes and significance of the Thirty Years' War? France … Updates? Leapfrogging, or island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris and beyond. Italian Wars, (1494–1559) series of violent wars for control of Italy.Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe. Broader events and occurrences are not linked to specific sections since they are general conclusions that should be reached by having a background in European history that would come from reading the text. Edict of NantesIssued on April 13, 1598, by Henry IV of France; granted the Huguenots substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. Henry IV also had personal reasons for supporting the Edict. In this situation, Catholics were supported by the House of the Guise, while the House of Bourbons sympathized with the Protestants. The crown, occupied by the House of Valois, generally supported the Catholic side, but on occasion switched over to the Protestant cause when it was politically expedient. Political unrest between the Huguenots and the powerful Guise family led to the death of many Huguenots, marking the beginning of the Wars of Religion. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. The Christian church had been a near universal church, at least in Europe, for over 1000 years. So the King declared war. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict gave many specific concessions to the Protestants, such as amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the state and to bring grievances directly to the king. The noble families of the House of Guise and the House of Bourbons were also involved. Clément was killed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. Although religion was certainly the basis for the conflict, it was much more than a confessional dispute. The Protestant Reformation was so popular and controversial in Europe that it sometimes led to war. Calvinism, a form of Protestant religion, was introduced by John Calvin, who was born in Noyon, Picardy, in 1509, and fled France in 1536 after the Affair of the Placards. Corrections? French Wars of Religion During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, politiques ( French pronunciation: [pɔlitik] ) were those in a position of power who put the success and well-being of their state above all else. The infamous French Wars of Religion were a series of wars that took place in France between 1562-1598 over a span of 36 years. The wars gradually took on a dynastic character, developing into an extended feud between the Houses of Bourbon and Guise, both of which—in addition to holding rival religious views—staked a claim to the French throne. Download Free The French Religious Wars 1562 1598 Essential Histories With the proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, pressures to leave France abated. Chapters four and six both relate to the role of religion in the wars of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles, Duke of Mayenne, Guise’s younger brother, took over the leadership of the league. French Revolutionary wars, title given to the hostilities between France and one or more European powers between 1792 and 1799. The edict established Catholicism as the state religion of France, but granted the Protestants equality with Catholics under the throne and a degree of religious and political freedom within their domains. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. b. The deaths of the opposing…, Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. British and the French Wars, 1793-1815 . Later, Louis Bourbon would become a major figure among the Huguenots of France. Although Francis firmly opposed heresy, the difficulty was initially in recognizing what constituted it; Catholic doctrine and definition of orthodox belief was unclear. They represented the first general European war since the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). An uneasy peace existed until 1584, when the Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir to the French throne. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Francis I continued his policy of seeking a middle course in the religious rift in France until an incident called the Affair of the Placards. The Wars of Religion. THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS including Encircling a pariah, Republican victories, Volunteer armies and conscription, War on land, War at sea, Strategies against Austria, The Italian campaign, Plans to invade England, The Egyptian campaign, The Syrian campaign, The Second Coalition However, these measures disguised the growing tensions between Protestants and Catholics. Until…. B. Henry III declared that he would no longer allow Protestants to be called heretics, while the Protestants revived the strict principles of royalty and divine right. The edict simultaneously protected Catholic interests by discouraging the founding of new Protestant churches in Catholic-controlled regions. Followers of the Reformation were known as Protestants. It was warfare that devastated a generation, although conducted in rather desultory, inconclusive way. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. These alliances served to balance European power and therefore further drifted Prussia and Austria into absolutism (Hooker, 1999). Civil War, particularly destructive to the development of the nation; Background: As a result of Reformation France had a Catholic Monarchy, but a divided population between Calvinists and Catholics; Both beliefs became highly MILITANT; Protestants led by the Bourbons (Henry of Navarre) Catholics led by the Guise; Huguenots: French Calvinists who were persecuted. The warfare was finally quelled in 1598 when Henry IV recanted Protestantism in favor of Roman Catholicism, issued as the Edict of Nantes. Who were the "Three Henrys?" Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Wars-of-Religion, History Learning Site - Third French War of Religion, Gaspard II de Coligny, seigneur de Châtillon, Blaise de Lasseran-Massencôme, seigneur de Monluc, Philippe de Mornay, seigneur du Plessis-Marly. Henry of Navarre sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. The Reformation of the early 1500s had changed this. 20, 1792, France declared war on Austria. You may have heard of D-Day, the Battle of Hastings, and Waterloo, but do you know their historical significance? The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations primarily between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though the monarchy later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. Calvinism in particular appears to have developed with large support from the nobility. He picked battle locations that gave him some advantage. 20 Questions | By Frenchwars2011 | Last updated: Jan 25, ... What started the second war - the conspiracy of Meaux or the Spanish move up the Netherlands? It was one event in the series of civil wars between Roman … In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. After fighting, Catherine calms down for a bit then the Protestant leader , Coligny tries to convince Catherine's son to invade the Spanish Netherlands. The religious wars began with overt hostilities in 1562 and lasted until the Edict of Nantes in 1598. These tensions spurred eight civil wars, interrupted by periods of relative calm, between 1562 and 1598. French Huguenots, fleeing religious persecution after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, established their own town at New Rochelle in Westchester County, for decades keeping local records in French. This leads to Guide massacring a bunch of Protestants in the town of Vassay and this leads to the French Wars Of Religion. Jeanne d'Albret (Jeanne of Navarre) was one of the leaders of the Huguenot party. Born circa 1529 in Amiens, Dubois settled in Switzerland. The Catholic League had put its preachers to good use. In these dark times the King of France finally reached out to his cousin and heir, the King of Navarre. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629 Disputes about the place of an organized and powerful Reformed minority (the Huguenots) in what was a Catholic state resulted in France being racked by nearly 40 years of confessional conflict in the late sixteenth century. The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations primarily between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The wars of religion were caused by intolerance within and among states where different religions competed for adherents. D isputes about the place of an organized and powerful Reformed minority (the Huguenots) in what was a Catholic state resulted in France being racked by nearly 40 years of confessional conflict in the late sixteenth century. The massacre began on the night of August 23, 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. Click here for a map of the territorial divisions of France along religious and political lines. On Apr. Fighting continued between Henry IV and the Catholic League for almost a decade. The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. Overview. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise, and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. The posters were extreme in their anti-Catholic content—specifically, the absolute rejection of the Catholic doctrine of “Real Presence.” Protestantism became identified as “a religion of rebels,” helping the Catholic Church to more easily define Protestantism as heresy. Similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following. After the murder of the Huguenot leader Gaspard II de Coligny in the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day (1572), the civil war resumed. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. On his deathbed, Henri III called for Henry of Navarre, and begged him, in the name of statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, although a resurgence of rebellious activity following this leads some to believe the Peace of Alais in 1629 is the actual conclusion. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise, and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars occupied almost twenty-five years of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of fighting between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). This underground Calvinist preaching (which was also seen in the Netherlands and Scotland) allowed for the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility and quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. What were the causes of the French Wars of Religion? https://quizlet.com/229306056/the-french-wars-of-religion-flash-cards The Wars of Religion, Part I Murder of Coligny and St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. 10. From the maps I've seen the Huguenots had more military dominance in the south and the the Catholics had more military dominance in the north. Some powerful noble families, who were ambitious, wanted to take advantage of this situation to gain more power. The War of the Three Henrys (1587–1589) was the eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion. To the left rear, Catherine de’ Medici is shown emerging from the Château du Louvre to inspect a heap of bodies. Animosity between Catholics and Protestants was also on the rise. With the end of the war, the military abandoned the airbases and stopped dropping cargo. The French monarchy became weak after the death of King Henry II in 1559. Guise’s forces occupied Paris and took control of the royal family while the Huguenots rose in the provinces, and their two commanders—Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, and Admiral Gaspard II de Coligny—established headquarters at Orléans. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman Empire were Catholic. Open war erupted between the royalists and the Catholic League. One of the most infamous events of the Wars of Religion was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of 1572, when Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots in Paris. It thus comprises the first seven years of the period of warfare that was continued through the Napoleonic Wars until Napoleon ’s abdication in 1814, with a year of interruption under the peace of Amiens (1802–03). People thought that the king had invited the Swiss to invade, paid them for coming, and sent them back again. The Siege of La Rochelle of 1572–1573 was a massive military assault on the Huguenot city of La Rochelle by Catholic troops during the fourth phase of the French Wars of Religion, following the August 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.The conflict began in November 1572 when inhabitants of the city refused to receive Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, as royal governor. Henry II continued the harsh religious policy that his father had followed during the last years of his reign. They were mainly fought between the French Catholics and the French Protestants or Huguenots. As a result, their interests clashed and conflicts began. The religious wars began with overt hostilities in 1562 and lasted until the Edict of Nantes in 1598. It was warfare that devastated a generation, although conducted in rather desultory, inconclusive way. The religious wars began with overt hostilities in 1562 and lasted until the Edict of Nantes in 1598. During this quarter century, six European coalitions challenged French expansion. The Spanish move up the Netherlands. Daughter of Marguerite of Navarre, she was also well-educated. Protestant ideas were first introduced to France during the reign of Francis I (1515–1547) in the form of Lutheranism, the teachings of Martin Luther, and circulated unimpeded for more than a year around Paris. Many inconclusive skirmishes followed, and compromises were reached in 1563, 1568, and 1570. Francois I strengthened the French Crown during the early 16th century. French Wars Of Religion Quiz . At the moment it seemed that he could not possibly resist his enemies. In Paris, the glory of repelling the German and Swiss Protestants all fell to the Duke of Guise. This led to the outbreak of the first of several civil wars in France known as the French Wars of Religion, which lasted more than a hundred years. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. During the wars, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. Real PresenceA term used in various Christian traditions to express belief that in the Eucharist, Jesus Christ is really present in what was previously just bread and wine, and not merely present in symbol. The conspiracy of Meaux. In 1560, Jeanne d’Albret, Queen regnant of Navarre, converted to Calvinism possibly due to the influence of Theodore de Beze. Although Dubois did not witness the massacre, he depicts Admiral Coligny’s body hanging out of a window at the rear to the right. England and Prussia being Protestants teamed up against the alliance of France and Austria which was predominantly Catholics. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy.Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793 and an extended period of political turmoil. January Edict; massacre at Vassy ____ French wars of religion-The peace of saint-germain-en-laye 1. acknowledged the power of Protestant nobility, granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their ____ and the right to fortify their cities. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. French Wars of Religion. The pattern of warfare followed by brief periods of peace continued for nearly another quarter-century. In April 1562, Protestants took control of Orleans and massacred Huguenots … The allied Austrian and Prussian forces under Charles William Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, quickly crossed Page 6/10. Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day, massacre of French Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris on August 24/25, 1572, plotted by Catherine de’ Medici and carried out by Roman Catholic nobles and other citizens. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I.Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A.Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 1. The controversial edict was one of the first decrees of religious tolerance in Europe and granted unheard-of religious rights to the French Protestant minority. A peace compromise in 1576 allowed the Huguenots freedom of worship. Page 6/10. This led to the War of the Three Henrys and later brought Spain to the aid the Roman Catholics. Brandenburg and Bavaria increased their territory. This marked the end of the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century. As the Huguenots gained influence and displayed their faith more openly, Roman Catholic hostility to them grew, spurning eight civil wars from 1562 to 1598. The wars were interrupted by breaks in peace that only lasted temporarily as the Huguenots’ trust in the Catholic throne diminished, and the violence became more severe and Protestant demands became grander. The Second French Empire (French: Second Empire), officially the French Empire (French: Empire français), was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.. Battles and wars: French Wars of Religion: During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, politiques (French pronunciation: ) were those in a position of power who put the success and well-being of their state above all else. New analysis shows that these civil wars were in fact religious in nature, remnants of the French Wars of Religion that largely ended with the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The purpose of this page is to give you a brief outline of the key events and happenings covered throughout this book. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. D-Day On June 6, 1944, more than 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline, to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. The king’s actions were viewed with contempt. It was a three-way war fought between: The war began when the Catholic League convinced King Henry III to issue an edict outlawing Protestantism and annulling Henry of Navarre’s right to the throne. Is there any way the French Wars of Religion could lead to a geographic partition that lasts beyond the wars? HuguenotsMembers of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries; inspired by the writings of John Calvin. How far were the success of the British army in the French wars due to the role of. 2. Altogether, each peace edict during the French Wars of Religion discussed religious terms at their centre and therefore the author demonstrates effectively that historians are vindicated when they fix the label of religious war ‘most conventionally’ with the conflicts in France (p. 86). She later married Antoine de Bourbon, and their son Henry of Navarre would be a leader among the Huguenots. The Massacre of Vassy sparked off decades of violence known as the French Wars of Religion. Between 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 people were killed as a result of war, famine, and disease, and at the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. These wars led to the formation of alliances with religious differences being the basis. Suffolk County at the eastern end of Long Island, settled by migrating New Englanders, was the stronghold of Congregationalists. In 1551, Henry issued the Edict of Châteaubriant, which sharply curtailed Protestant rights to worship, assemble, or even discuss religion at work, in the fields, or over a meal. It is believed to have started with Louis Bourbon, Prince of Condé, who, while returning home to France from a military campaign, passed through Geneva, Switzerland, and heard a sermon by a Calvinist preacher. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. During the 16th century, a revolution began in Christianity. https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/the-protestant-reformation-12/protestantism-56/the-french-wars-of-religion-213-13327/, Discuss how the patterns of warfare that took place in France affected the Huguenots. The Swiss were his allies, and had come to invade France to free him from subjection, but Henry III insisted that their invasion was not in his favor, but against him, forcing them to return home. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Francis I tried to steer a middle course in the developing religious schism in France. The proclamation of the Edict of Nantes, and the subsequent protection of Huguenot rights, finally quelled the uprisings. Much as Philip II hated and feared a possible Huguenot (French Protestant) victory in France, he was content to see the civil wars continue, anxious most often to intervene on the side of the Catholics yet sometimes covertly offering help to the Huguenots. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16thcentury) 2. He named Henry Navarre as his heir, who became Henry IV. 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