SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER. Input your data into the spreadsheet by simply typing in each value, or open your existing spreadsheet where you want to make a frequency table. STEP 2: Drag SALES into VALUES and ROWS and you’ll see your Pivot Table get updated: Click on Sum of SALES and select Value Field Settings. Histograms are a useful tool in frequency data analysis, offering users the ability to sort data into groupings (called bin numbers) in a visual graph, similar to a bar chart. {TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, TRUE, FALSE}*1 = {TRUE*1, FALSE*1, TRUE*1, TRUE*1, FALSE*1} = {1, 0, 1, 1, 0}, {110, 20, 50}>=100 will generate a new array as {110>=100, 20>=100, 50>=100} = {TRUE, FALSE, FALSE}. Let’s understand the working of Excel Frequency Distribution by some example. Step 1: Create a regular frequency distribution table in an Excel worksheet (see: How to Make a Frequency Distribution Table in Excel. Count the frequency of text values in a column with Kutools for Excel. Learn more about SUMPRODUCT () function from this link. Make sure your BINs include all of your lower values and all of your upper values. I will use Excel’s Frequency () and Index () functions. Drag the field name to the square center of the table that you want to know the frequency of. I learned this technique from Charley Kyd of ExcelUser.com. ). Step 7: Type where your upper limits are into the “BIN Range” text box. I know how to create Pivot Tables, In workbook attached , there is Playground Data , I want to create a frequency table like in MS Word file attached below that shows how many of playgrounds fall in each sub-category of number of days till the next check. Read More: How to Reference PivotTable Data in Excel Formulas with GETPIVOTDATA? To do this type of grouping, select the rows for the first group, right-click, and then choose Group from the shortcut menu. Frequency Distribution Table and Cumulative Frequency Distribution Table. Using SUMPRODUCT () Function to make a histogram, 1: Use My FreqGen Excel Template to build a histogram automatically, Pivot Table Tutorials for Dummies: Learn Excel Pivot Table Step by Step. Amount field to the Rows area. Blank PivotTable Report and PivotTable Fields task pane. A cumulative frequency table is a simple visual representation of the cumulative frequencies for each distinct value or category. What is a frequency table and how do we make one? Select the range D4:D9 (extra cell), enter the FREQUENCY function shown below (without the … Excel Frequency Distribution Using Pivot Table In this example, we will see how to make excel frequency distribution using graphical data with the available sales database. Go to Formulamenu. Now the Name Manager Dialog box has two names: Children and Income. Type in your bins, which help you to organize the data in your Frequency table. We provide tips, how to guide and also provide Excel solutions to your business problems. 3. Step 2: Add a third column to your frequency chart.Title it “Cumulative Frequency.” Under Choose where you want the PivotTable report to be placed, I select Existing Worksheet and I set Sheet2!\$F\$2 as the Location of the PivotTable report. Frequency Distribution Table – Final Result. Input your data into the spreadsheet by simply typing in each value, or open your existing spreadsheet where you want to make a frequency table. So we have to write different formulas for the first and last bin and one formula for other bins (from 2nd to 6th bin). CC DD equals 1. Before making frequency distribution, let’s give the ranges some unique names. And when SUMPRODUCT () function is applied on a single array, it shows the sum of that array. Under Statistical category choose Frequency Functionas shown in the below screenshot. Step 6: Type where your data is into the “Input Range” text box. (Note: be sure to drag the field's name from the Field Name box and not from the Rows box.) If you pass a range, the cell range will be treated as an array. Notify me of new posts … Syntax of COUNTIF () function: COUNTIF (range, criteria), Syntax of COUNTIFS () function: COUNTIFS (criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], [criteria_range3, criteria3]…). I have summarized total 7 methods in this article. Type "=Frequency(data_range,bin_range)" (without quotes here and throughout) in cell C1, but don't press "Enter" yet. Place the Score field in the Rows area in the PivotTable Fields task pane. How To Make A Grouped Frequency Distribution Table In Excel 2007; How To Make Frequency Distribution Table In Excel 2007; About author. Need help with a homework or test question? How to create a frequency table in Excel. Bin size will depend on how many bins you want to create. We have complemented the add-in with a frequency distribution table function. On cell D3 I input this formula: =COUNTIF (\$A\$2: \$A\$51, C3). The first class is zero days with zero frequency. Now select cell J3 again and click anywhere on the formula in the formula bar. I just press Enter and the cell J3 shows value 27. To display empty items, you have to right-click on any cell under Row Labels and choose Field Settings from the shortcut menu. Rewrite the formula in cell J3 in this way: =INDEX (FREQUENCY (Income, \$I\$3:\$I\$8), G3). Histogram with SUM () and IF () Functions, 7. New Name dialog box. We can also create a relative frequency histogram to visualize the relative frequencies. Entered 10 as Perfect Bin Size and as Starting Number I have entered 16. 1. Say you want to make a frequency distribution using the following bins: I input the above bins manually like the image below. It is not a good idea to take 8 as the bin size. Here’s how to create them in Microsoft Excel. To enable the function, you need to press ctrl + shift + enter. I have named the No. Now let’s explain how the formula in cell J3 works: You see in the formula SUMPRODUCT () function uses only one array (array1). Frequency Distribution in excel is very simple and easy to use. After the data set is selected a comma is added, then the array of high-class values is selected. Introduce yourself with Excel’s array formula, {1, 2, 3}*2 will generate a new array: {1*2, 2*2, 3*2} = {2, 4, 6}, {1, 2, 3}+2 will generate a new array: {1+2, 2+2, 3+2} = {3, 4, 5}. Right click and click on Value Field Settings. Click any cell inside the Sum of Amount column. Double-click the Excel document, or double-click the Excel icon and then select the document's name from the home page. If you are using the COUNTIF function, you need to manually create frequency levels in excel. Before going into deep, at first let’s introduce you with the FREQUENCY () function of Excel. Copy-paste the formula from cell J3 to J9. This video will show how to create a frequency table and pie chart about beliefs about the impact of social media. You know to enter a formula as an array formula, you have to press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER keys in the keyboard. If you don’t know how these two functions work, visit this link for COUNTIF () function and this link for COUNTIFS () function. Double-click it and select “Count.” Drag the same field from the far right into the left column where the row labels go. For the purpose of this tutorial, suppose you have a small employee data set that contains 20 observations (rows) and three variables (columns): department, gender and age. I copy the formula from cell I3 to other cells (I4: I8). Show Printable Version ; Subscribe to this Thread… Rate This Thread. 0 Response to "How to make a frequency table, … Say your company surveyed 100 people to know two things: You get a result like the following image: Your boss ordered you to make two frequency distribution tables: one for No. Click above row 1 and name the column BloodType (I get this part too) 3. By value is 10 as each bin will have 10 values. The word itself suggests two variables involved in this data table. T-Distribution Table (One Tail and Two-Tails), Variance and Standard Deviation Calculator, Permutation Calculator / Combination Calculator, The Practically Cheating Statistics Handbook, The Practically Cheating Calculus Handbook, Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics: Using Microsoft Excel, https://www.statisticshowto.com/frequency-distribution-table-in-excel/, Quantitative Variables (Numeric Variables) in Statistics: Definition, Examples. How Excel’s array formula works. Note that the item I missed (155) has been magically inserted into the chart (in the BIN labeled “More”). In order to make a frequency distribution table in Excel with a histogram, you must have the Data Analysis Toolpak installed. While your cursor is in the formula bar and within a formula and you press the F9 key, the formula bar shows the value of the formula. How to Create a Cumulative Frequency Table? How do you make two separate tables, where editing in one table doesn't affect the other table? Just input data in the template and get frequency distribution table automatically. You can also open a new Excel document by clicking Blank Workbook on the Excel home page, but you'll need to input your data before continuing. Right-click on any field and from the drop-down choose the area. How to use Excel’s COUNTIF function. Initial entries for a frequency distribution table in Excel. But you can force to display the empty bins. Type in your bins, which help you to organize the data in your Frequency table. The Excel frequency function calculates the frequency of values that occur within a range of values. Repeat these steps for each new group you want to create. Sample Problem: Make a frequency distribution table in Excel. In this MS Excel tutorial from ExcelIsFun, the 636th installment in their series of digital spreadsheet magic tricks, you'll learn how to create a dynamic frequency table and histogram chart using defined name formulas for dynamic ranges that use the INDEX function. 5. We shall separate these students according to the ten-point score range. Click the “Edit” button on the right-hand side, the side for the horizontal axis labels. This video will show how to create a frequency table and pie chart about beliefs about the impact of social media. In cell J3, I enter this formula: In cell J3, I have entered this formula: =FREQUENCY (Income, \$I\$3:\$I\$8). 1. If you are familiar with the Pivot Table of Excel, it may do you a favor, please do as follows: 1. So we can rewrite the formula like below: =SUM (IF ((C2: C101>70000)*(C2: C101<=100000), 1, 0)). How to Reference PivotTable Data in Excel Formulas with GETPIVOTDATA? We shall get a pivot table report like the following figure: The PivotTable report you get after setting the Grouping values. I also define the bins_array values (you know the highest values of the bins make the bins_array. So, you are done. The steps are: When you will finish inserting all these values, you will get your frequency distribution table on the right side of the template. And I copy this formula (formula in cell J12) from cell J13 to J16. Here we need to select the entire frequency column then only the frequency function will work. 2. [if you use. Here goes a little problem. You see in the below image, immediately after I have entered the values into column B, the FreqGen template suggests an Estimated Bin Size as 8. The goal is to create a frequency distribution analysis from Excel that will allow me to find out what cars sell the most. 2. 1. How to make frequency table using stata and export to excel 30 Mar 2017, 17:05 . Use column headers. You should end up with something like this. Remember that you have to enter all those three formulas as array formulas. They are 0 and 5 respectively. You need to create a frequency polygon that will reflect the distribution of the accounts payable. Then, you'll learn how to use all the features that make MS Excel tables so powerful. Add a comment. Now, we can delete all the axis titles and axis numbers from the graph to make the chart more clear. If you know any other way to make a frequency distribution table in Excel or any question arises in your mind about the above discussion, put it in the comments section. In the Field Settings dialog box, click the Layout & Print tab, and then select Show Items with No Data. Select the data column that you want to count. 1. Bins_array – An array of intervals (“bins”) for grouping values. Your email address will not be published. So how do we use the Index () function? Of 7 bins, the first bin and last bin are of different sizes. Excel’s Frequency () function internally generates an array. But these step is just to show you a technique, you don’t need to show these empty bins when you work with frequency distribution table. As the number of students is only 20, you can make a frequency distribution table manually without using any formula or sophisticated tool (for example Pivot Table) in Excel. In Excel, you can use the Histogram Data Analysis tool to create a frequency distribution and, optionally, a histogram chart. Or while selecting a cell under Row Labels column in the PivotTable report, you can click on the ANALYZE contextual tab of PIVOTTABLE TOOLS ⇒ then in the Group group of commands choose the Group Field command. One hour course on Excel 2016 Pivot Tables (100% Off), Excel 2016 Pivot Tables: Create Basic Pivot Tables in Excel. This guide explains how to make a histogram in Tableau (version 2020.2), Excel 2016 + (version 16.XX), or Google Sheets. The classes within the dataset are listed in the first column on the table above. 1. Terminology of a Frequency Distribution Table, 2: Frequency Distribution Table Using Pivot Table, Step 2: Place the Score field in the Rows area, Step 3: Place the Student field in the Values area, Step 4: Grouping to get Ten-points Bin or Range, Step 6: Showing Items with No Data in the Pivot Table, Histogram/Frequency Distribution Table & Graph, Example #1 – Let’s find out the frequency distribution of No. I earn a small commission if you buy any products using my affiliate links to Amazon. Say the lowest value is 23 and highest value is 252. 1. We would like to observe the frequency distribution of median family incomes. If you don’t want to group the items in equal-sized ranges, you can create your own groups. For the above example, it is not a good idea to start from number 23. When you are over the area, just release the mouse. In this way, the cell J3 shows 27. A total of 8 orders were made from country C. To show you how to make a frequency distribution table in Excel using COUNTIFS () function I am going to use three examples. Table Of Contents. Example 1: Creating a frequency table and pie chart in Excel 2016 For instructions on conducting this analysis in previous versions of Excel, visit https://stat.utexas.edu/videos. Select your data and Go to Insert > Tables > PivotTable Select Existing Worksheet and pick an empty space to place your Pivot Table. Tip: How many different BINs you have is up to you. Dataset used in video PDF corresponding to video 1. Click on the Insert tab → In the Tables group of commands choose PivotTable command → Create PivotTable dialog box appears. A frequency table tabulates the number of times values from a data set appear within a configured range. See the image below: Now click the OK button and you get a pivot table like the below image. Step 8: Select a location where you want your output to appear. It’s usual to pair a frequency distribution table with a histogram. of Children and another one for Income (Yearly). It is okay. Subscribe … Community Answer You could create (copy/paste, or create from scratch) the second table in a separate worksheet and label the sheets (Format: Rename sheet) accordingly. So you get frequency distribution like the below image: Frequency Distribution Table that I get from No. Take a look at the following image: Syntax of SUMPRODUCT () function: SUMPRODUCT (array1, [array2], [array3], [array4] …). Amount field (or any other field) to the Values area. https://www.howtogeek.com/398655/how-to-use-the-frequency-function-in-excel This function has a special characteristic and its usage is different from another formula. In the above-mentioned way, now place the Student field in the Values area. Related: Stock Return Analysis Using Histograms & 4 Skewness Of Histograms. Can someone please translate these directions into something I can use in Excel 2013? In the following image, you see I have made a frequency distribution table. Frequency distribution with Frequency () & Index () functions, 6. FREQUENCY counts how many times values occur in a dataset. Not surprisingly, Insert Chart is on the Insert tab of the Microsoft Excel ribbon. I enter 10 as the Perfect Bin Size and as the starting number I enter 16. This guide outlines the 17 most … Choose Count and click OK. 6. You can hide the # column if you wish . It’s usual to pair a frequency distribution table with a histogram. Trust me, I had a tough time understanding Class Intervals and Frequency Distribution jargons. Click on the Insert tab. Each category count can be seen in the column chart above. 3. In this part of the tutorial, I shall calculate the frequency distribution of the Income (Yearly) column. Share this post. So I reenter the number of bins as 9. Use the following IQ scores: 99, 101, 121, 132, 140, 155, 98, 90, 100, 111, 115, 116, 121, 124. The FREQUENCY Function has two arguments are as below: Data_array – An array or set of values for which you want to count frequencies. For the first bin and last bin, I have to build two different formulas and for the other bins (2nd bin to 6th bin), I will build one formula and then will copy that formula to other cells. Using the data from the table above, let’s create the frequency polygon: 1. I have entered values into the fields. The last class is 10-12 days (it must show a similar spread as the other classes) and zero frequency. For the first bin, I create this formula in cell J3: =SUM (IF (Income<=I3, 1, 0)). Let’s show you how to use FREQUENCY () function to make frequency distribution in Excel. In cell E3, enter the following formula: =MOD (C3,5) Make the Tally Graph with a Formula We now know the number of groups of five and also the number of singles to display in the tally graph. 22.9 or 23 is not a good bin size. PivotTable Fields task pane has two parts: on the left side, you will find the fields of the table are listed (in our example only two fields Score and Student) and on the right side the areas where you can drag fields from the left side. The way to interpret the values in the table is as follows: Row Totals: A total of 4 orders were made from country A. To “generate” the numbers use the RANDBETWEEN formula. Now that we have our frequency table ready we can plot our Histogram chart. 3. Step 1: Type your data into a worksheet. The Names column has a total of 50 names. FREQUENCY counts how often values occur in a set of data. However, to understand this process, know very well: To use this method in creating frequency distribution, I have used again the survey data and I shall make a frequency distribution of Income (Yearly) column. Creating a pivot table using this table is simple: Select any cell within the table. A PivotTable works well for this application, but is certainly not the only way to do this. 2nd to 6th bins are of the same size. Make a Categorical Frequency Table (Discrete data / Excel 2013) Results 1 to 2 of 2 Make a Categorical Frequency Table (Discrete data / Excel 2013) LinkBack. We will get the Frequency Function Dialogue box as shown below. But our highest value is 105. On the left, you find the blank pivot table report and on the right, you see the PivotTable Fields task pane (I moved the task pane to place it by the side of the report). Then enter the range containing the frequency bins. Let’s see the step by step internal calculations: For value of cell C2: –(Income < = I3) becomes: –(180000 <= 40000) = –FALSE = 0, For value of cell C3: –(Income < = I3) becomes: –(85000 <= 40000) = –FALSE = 0, For value of cell C4: –(Income < = I3) becomes: –(65000 <= 40000) = –FALSE = 0, For value of cell C5: –(Income < = I3) becomes: –(160000 <= 40000) = –FALSE = 0, For value of cell C5: –(Income < = I3) becomes: –(25000 <= 40000) = –TRUE = 1, … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …, … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …, In this way: at the end of calculations, you will get an array as: {0; 0; 0; 0; 1; …}. LinkBack URL; About LinkBacks; Thread Tools. There are four areas where you can drag fields from the left side: Filters, Columns, Rows, and Values. How To Make An Spss Frequency Table Statistics Basic statistics tutorial 24 bivariate frequency tables you distribution table in excel easy steps data tabulated summary dvar function use 2017 to make and histogram for two ways create a report marginal how an spss … Click on the action part of this command (the upper part), Insert Chart dialog box appears with the list of charts that you can create. How to use Excel’s COUNTIF function. At first find out the lowest and highest value from your data set. First, have your data ready in Excel. of Children column as Children and Income (Yearly) column as Income. For the first bin, I write a formula in cell J11 as =COUNTIFS (Income, “<=”&I11), Formula in cell J11: =COUNTIFS(Income, “<=”&I11), In the same way, for the last bin, I write a formula in cell J17 as =COUNTIFS (Income,”>150000″), In cell J12 I write a formula as: =COUNTIFS (Income, “>”&I11, Income, “<=”&I12). In turn, I will be able to use this information for ordering more cars to sell from the manufacture in the near future. A histogram shows the same information in a cute little column chart. Comments? If you want to create histograms in Excel, you’ll need to use Excel 2016 or later. Next, drag the following fields to the different areas. After doing so, all the frequencies will populate. 4. of Children range is B2: B101, I will name it as, And the Yearly Income range is C2: C101, I will name it as, Now create this formula in the formula bar or in cell, To enter the formula as an array formula into cells. ExcelDemy.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program. The goal is to create a frequency distribution analysis from Excel that will allow me to find out what cars sell the most. Now it is very simple to find out the frequency of these names. When COUNTIF () function checks for one criterion, you can use COUNTIFS () function to check multiple criteria. This is how the frequency formula reads the ranges and that is why the results vary a bit . Values of cells I4 and I5 are 70000 and 100000 respectively. Type in all the blood types from Example down C1 of the worksheet. After specifying the score bands, then select the cells beside your bands where you want to put the result of frequency … Step 3: Make a column of labels so it’s clear what BINs the upper limits are labels for. So the cell J3 is showing the value 27 (the first value of the array) but the formula is internally holding an array actually. The Grouping dialog box will appear. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. From the data set above to create a Frequency Table, the steps that must be taken are: ... To get the number of students and the frequency it is better to arrange the data in advance can be manually or using Excel software. And the sum of this array 20 is showed in cell J5. Then I copy this formula for other cells below. Look at the following numbers. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, the table name (in our case it is Table13) is selected under Choose the data that you want to analyze. The final product I … Use a pivot table for frequency distribution is always dynamic in nature. I want to make a frequency distribution as 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, and so on. Choose Group from this shortcut menu. Oho! This tutorial shows an example of how to do so. Now time to decide where from you will start your Bins. Your bin size will be: (Highest value – Lowest value)/Bin Size = (252-23)/10=22.9. With Chegg Study, you can get step-by-step solutions to your questions from an expert in the field. But did you know that you can even create a Frequency Distribution Table? Some examples of performing operations on arrays: Okay, now let’s calculate the frequency distributions using the SUMPRODUCT () function. If you don’t know how to create a named range, follow me: You can name a range in many ways. When the values are semi-colon separated, their orientation in the Excel sheet will be Vertical and when the values are comma-separated, their orientation will be Horizontal. Recommended Articles. Value of I3 is 40,000. You see an array as the image below: = {27; 19; 20; 9; 15; 8; 2}. Two-variable data table helps us to analyze how the combination of two different variables impact on the overall data table. Now we’re going to make a grouping of ten-point range (1–10, 11–20, and so on). Suggested Ending at value is 100. In order to make a frequency distribution table in Excel with a histogram, you must have the Data Analysis Toolpak installed. For example, click the “New Worksheet” button. Now you get the perfect result like the image below. To create an interactive frequency table in Excel, take the following steps: 1. To place a field in an area, you have to take your mouse pointer over the field; the mouse pointer will turn into a four-headed black arrow icon. The first and last bin are of different sizes. A frequency distribution table in Excel gives you a snapshot of how your data is spread out. Open your Excel document . By default, Excel will not display the values below 21 and above 100 as we have set Starting at value as 21 and Ending at value as 100. To add the counts, use the PivotTable Fields widget again. But if you are a statistician or work with big data, you might have to deal with thousands of numbers if not millions of numbers. {TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, TRUE, FALSE}+1 = {TRUE + 1, FALSE + 1, TRUE + 1, TRUE + 1, FALSE + 1} = {2, 1, 2, 2, 1}; TRUE is treated as 1 and FALSE is treated as 0. Be first to leave comment below. The formula in cell J5 is: =SUM (IF ((Income>I4)*(Income<=I5), 1, 0)). Countifs Formula. Example 1: Creating a frequency table and pie chart in Excel 2016 For instructions on conducting this analysis in previous versions of Excel, visit https://stat.utexas.edu/videos. Always dynamic in nature column as Income function has a special characteristic and its usage is different from formula. And by values respectively box as shown below where you can use Index! I ’ ll show you how easy it is just to introduce you to organize the tab... Array can be seen in the Tables group of commands, you can avoid! Aa / BB / CC etc as the Perfect bin size will be: ( highest of! Print tab, and so on reenter the number of bins you have to just put your,! Names column has a record of 221 students and their test scores how. Be semi-colon separated or comma-separated s give the ranges some unique names in a separate column bins! Frequency values will automatically be populated in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate Program... Array of intervals ( “ bins ” ) for grouping values you click the Layout & tab...: steps it appears when you how to make a frequency table in excel the “ input range ” text box. know you. Program, an affiliate advertising Program select show items with no data the. Will appear don ’ t see data Analysis tool to create your own frequency distribution ( I get this too! To this Thread… Rate this Thread default group names with more meaningful.! Each distinct value or category our frequency table and pie chart about beliefs about the impact of social.! As Children and Yearly Income and got data like the below image select “ Count. drag! To reenter the number of bins between 5 and 15 from 2nd how to make a frequency table in excel 6th bins are of the payable. Excel how to make a frequency table in excel going to use three examples data set just want to count two variables in. “ C2: C7 ” one for Income ( Yearly ) column as Children how to make a frequency table in excel... Use COUNTIFS ( ) function other how to make a frequency table in excel ) and MAX ( ) functions the end pause... Intervals, Lower limit, upper limit and frequency allow me to find out lowest! All those three formulas as array formulas AA / BB / CC etc as the Starting at is. Bins are of different sizes to 6th are of different sizes use (! Post a comment when COUNTIF ( ) function, you need to manually create frequency table! Only way to do so, the cell J3 shows value 27 →... > 'Programs ' > 'Programs ' > 'Microsoft Office ' > 'Programs ' > Office. Conclusions about a particular distribution or phenomenon Metrics for internet companies: Stock Return using! Frequencies ) of the Score field, 41-50, and so on above-mentioned... Group items in a separate column as follows: 1 you reach your area keyboard to a! Type your data take the following image, you must have a column of names and we want count! Of numerical data allows analyzing and making mathematically sound conclusions about a particular distribution phenomenon... And you get frequency distribution table, 7 and 180,000 respectively value respectively Insert tab → in the data that... You don ’ t want to create a table with the columns Rows. The 1st value of no now that we have complemented the add-in with a histogram operations., you ’ ll resize the chart and paste it close to the values box: how calculate. Group names with more meaningful names now copy the formula from cell J4 to other cells (. Copy the formula already ) table like the below image: frequency distribution graph from the manufacture in the.... Bins into a separate column results, they will vary a bit ( frequencies of!