The entire site retains its physical integrity and is still set in a landscape that is reminiscent to the natural setting of the Neolithic men approximately in 4th millennium B.C. The site has a commanding view of the Dal lakewhic… The Burzahom site is a prehistoric settlement in the village of the same name in the Srinagar District. The other stone slab is 48–27 centimetres (19–11 in) which depicts, on one polished side, sketches of hunting scenes such as a hunter spearing (with a Ker) an antlered deer and another hunter in the process of releasing an arrow, and a sketch of the movement of the Sun, at two levels. In the Kashmiri language 'Burzahom' means "birch", a tree species (that generally grows in the elevation range of 3,000 to 4,200 metres (9,800 to 13,800 ft) in the Himalayas), which is found in the excavated housing area in the form of roofing material, and thus confirming the existence of the tree even in the pre-historic Neolithic times. These are found all over the subcontinent. provided the early Neolithic people of Burzahom protection from the elements during bitter winters in Kashmir.The pits were usually round or oval, and Definition: A Pit House was a type of semi subterranean dwelling, built half below the surface of the ground in a deep hole or pit, made with a log frame with the walls and roof being covered with grass, sticks, bark, brush that was covered with earth. 9. Also, Hariparigam, and Awantipura, in the same area, are related. iii) Archaeologists also found traces of huts or pit houses in Burzahom. Some historians have stated that the Vedic Aryan culture extended into Kashmir, but archaeological investigation at Burzahom does not support the "Aryans in Kashmir" theory[10], The management and the protection of the Burzahom site, including the buffer zones, are under the jurisdiction of the Archaeological Survey of India and the State Department of Archaeology conforming to the Ancient Monuments and Sites Remains Act 1958 (Amended in 2010). In the next stage (Ceramic Neolithic/Period II) structures in mud or mud bricks with regular floors made of rammed karewa soil, often reusing erstwhile pits by filling in with mud and finished by plastering a layer of mud, covered with a thin coat of red ochre as well as timbre showing evolution in construction techniques. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. Seven evidences of complete and four incomplete evidences of trepanning of human skulls have also been noted. The pits were circular or oval in plan, narrow at the top and wide at the base having (wooden) post holes on the ground level suggesting a birch cover as a protection against the harsh weather. [11][18] Another pottery item which is of interest is a polished black ware in globular shape jar with a long neck and flaring mouth. Answer: Pit-houses were built by people by digging into the ground, with steps leading into them. pit houses were made in burzahom With the shape of the…” more, “Over 100 year old rocker I inherited from my grandmother, Jose and Andres restored it beautifully and the upholstery is perfect. One of the unique finds of this layer is a red-ware pot with a horned figure painted on it. By 2,000 BC, the Neolithic people of Burzahom started to live in mud huts at ground level, and by this time, there is also evidence of multiple burials, usually under house floors or in the compounds. Two female skulls, different from the male skulls, were also reported. [12] These are: Periods I and II of the Neolithic (Period I is called aceramic and Period II is called ceramic) origin, particularly characterized by dwelling pits (the largest measuring 2.74 metres (9 ft 0 in) at the top to 4.75 metres (15.6 ft) at the base at a depth of 3.95 metres (13.0 ft)); Period III of the Megalithic sequence noted by the free standing large stone Menhirs installed at the site by shifting boulders manually from the hills; and Period IV of the early Modern Period. In 1944, Mortimer Wheeler, Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India had conducted the first stratified archaeological excavations on the lines of geological model at other sites. The interaction of local and foreign influences is demonstrated by the art, architecture, customs, rituals and language demonstrated by some engravings on pottery and other artifacts.. The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. Good Morning Friends, We are Posting Today’s Prelims Marathon . Answer: Mortars and pestles are Neolithic tools used even today for grinding grain. The Burzahom site is a prehistoric settlement in the village of the same name in the Srinagar District. Mehrgarh – Pit Houses 2. The pits were circular or oval in plan, narrow at the top and wide at the base having (wooden) post holes on the ground level suggesting a birch cover as a protection against the harsh weather. Burzahom's ceramic industry was mostly of hunting based culture and is different from the Chinese Neolithic pottery. The main attribute of pithouse architecture is a pit dug into the ground that forms the foundation of the house. The excavated pit floors vary from flat to bowl-shaped; they can include prepared floors or not. Sometime at the turn of the fourth millennium BCE, the Neolithic Burzahom appears to the major centres of pre-historic man’s activity in Kashmir. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. [19], An interesting find of this period is of two standalone finished flat stone slabs. It is 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to the northwest of Srinagar on the Naseem-Shalimar road. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! Ans : Burzahom. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Integrity: The entire site retains its physical integrity and is still set in a landscape that is reminiscent to the natural setting of the Neolithic men approximately in 4th millennium B.C. [2] Periods I and II represent the Neolithic era; Period III the Megalithic era (of massive stone menhirs and wheel turned red pottery); and Period IV relates to the early Historical Period (Post-megalithic period). Answer- (d) Explanation- Statement 1 is incorrect:-In Burzahom(in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. The detail study of the material culture, palaeo-climate, flora, and fauna, micro-wear studies, and other multidisciplinary studies has provided an opportunity to understand and analyse the interaction of the Neolithic population of Burzahom with the Himalayan hinterland and the riverine sites of West Asia. Criteria (iii): The core aspects of the Burzahom Neolithic seem to have originated and organically evolved on the soil of Kashmir, and bear an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition which has now largely disappeared. [11], "ASI report says even Neolithic Kashmir had textile industry", "Excavations – Important – Jammu & Kashmir Patna", "Burzahom Archaeological site, India:Neolithic Period finds", "Neolithic Hunting Scene on a Stone Slab from Burzahom, Kashmir", "Extending Kashmiriyat to Embrace Burzahom", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Burzahom_archaeological_site&oldid=989300716, Archaeological sites in Jammu and Kashmir, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 05:20. Burzahom is in Kashmir. The several pottery shards of steel grey, dull red, brown or buff have been recovered from the pits as one of the material remain. Jadeite, found in Daojali Hading, may have been brought from China. What were pit-houses and where have they been found? Skeletons were also found in crouched positions often without any grave furniture while in some instances accompanied with animal skeletal remains. The subterranean pit-dwelling of Neolithic men (Aceramic Neolithic/Period I) were cut into the natural soil usually dug out with long stone celts, the cuts-marks of which can still be traced. Stone tools were used to dig circular pits in the ground, which were then plastered on the sides using mud. Chirand is a site in Kashmir. These are rough in shape, huge and of considerable weight and height, and are "free-standing". False. Questions are based on the static part of … Describe the pit houses found at Burzahom. Craftsmanship was superior during this period with finds of wheel made durable hard red ware, copper objects, and tools made of bone and stone. The presence of lentil in the Burzahom Neolithic further explains that the people of Burzahom had wide contacts with Central Asia, a critical evidence of the human movement through mountain passes into the Kashmir valley. Apart from pottery, bones and stone tools like harpoons,  needles with or without eyes, awls used probably for stitching skins, spear-points, arrow-heads and daggers for hunting game, scrapers for treating skins, stone axes, chisels, adzes, pounders, mace-heads, points and picks were used by the Neolithic settlers in this period. Stone hearths have also been found at ground levels, near the mouth of pits, showing that habitation activities were also at the ground level. The nominated property with its entire cultural equipment range has potential for future excavation and other avenues of research which is surely ripe with new set of information throwing a welcome light on the formative stages of culture and civilization in this part of the world. The remains in the Neolithic site of Burzahom narrates the cultural sequence of human habitation from 3000 BCE to 1000 BCE (Periods I and II belong to the Neolithic period, Period III to the Megalithic period, and Period IV to the Early Historical period (or Post-megalithic period)). [15] Pottery made in Burzahom showed close affinity to those found in the Swat valley in Pakistan, particularly in respect of its shapes and decorations of the black ware pottery. The pits had steps that led to the bottom. In Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. In Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Name two Neolithic tools which are used to grind grain even today. Burzahom was the first Neolithic site to be discovered in Indian held Kashmir. [3][11], Carbon dating established that the Neolithic culture of this site was traceable to the 3rd millennium BC, the earliest occupation at the site was dated to before 2,357 BC. Thanks to Pushparaj Suresh Patil for exquisite images of ancient architectural facets of ancient civilizations. Rubble structures associated with the Megalithic men have also been found. Based on a similar model the Burzahom site has been named as the Northern Neolithic Culture in view of its distinctive structural features with profusion of tools made of bones and stones and tools representing the ritualistic practices.[8]. Q6: Burial is an arrangement for _____. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors Criteria (v): Sometime at the turn of the fourth millennium BCE, the Neolithic Burzahom appears to the major centres of pre-historic man’s activity in Kashmir. The core aspects of the Burzahom Neolithic seem to have originated and organically evolved on the soil of Kashmir, and bear an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition which has now largely disappeared. [3] The antiquities did not reveal any signs of burials sites.[11]. [3], The site is maintained in the form that has been excavated, representing the natural setting of the Neolithic people. Mehrgarh – Burials with Grave goods Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched? These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Why did the ancient people make such type of pit houses? The material culture recovered constitutes of a gritty red ware pottery, manufactured in potters wheel, metal objects and few tools made of bone and stone continued. Ascribed to the same era are subterranean dwellings of quadrangular section, covered by a layer of birch, with a centrally placed stone or clay hearth and storage pit. Answer. The burial practices and type of tools recovered from the site were inferred as having close resemblance to those found in the North Chinese Neolithic culture. The interaction of local and foreign influences are demonstrated by the art, architecture, customs and rituals as also possibly by the language as demonstrated by some graffiti marks on pottery and others. The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels. Breathtaking images of pipe drainage systems of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization [1] Archaeological excavations have revealed four phases of cultural significance between 3000 BC and 1000 BC. Ans : Herding. The Menhirs, boulders formed due to the varying temperatures, were brought down from the hills with great effort by the people and installed to mark notable events of the community. Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party. The site is on an ancient Pleistocene lake bed. The practice of agriculture has been established through the tools and finding of palaeo-botanic analysis. Q5: Name One of the important occupations taken up by the tribes of Middle Stone Age. Answer: Pit-houses were built by people by digging into the ground, with steps leading into them. Crude in finish, the continuity of these types of crude pottery can be seen in today`s Kashmir. Burnt birch found in the excavations showed that birch trees must have been common in the area in the Stone Age. They have been found in Burzahom. Question 5: List three ways in which the lives of farmers and herders would have been different from that of hunter-gatherers. The Burzahom site revealed the transition from the subterranean and ground level housing features of the Neolithic people to the mudbrick structures of the Megalithic people. Ans. Burzahom – Rectangular Houses 3. The exposed pits and the layout are well protected. The site is on an ancient Pleistocene lake bed. [11], This site was nominated on 15 April 2014 for inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is yet to be approved.[11]. From subterranean dwelling pits, the evidences in the site show the emergence of mud-structures, thereon mud-bricks constructions on level ground. The opening, Hariparigam, and were made from mud-bricks: name the place where several burial sites been... Jungle of concrete houses are Neolithic tools which are used to grind grain even today of concrete houses circular used! Herders would have been submitted by the tribes of Middle stone Age ancient civilizations grub- ) hut or grubhouse after! 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